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Knight Letter 



The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Winter 2003 

Volume II Issue 2 

Number 72 

Knight Letter \s the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll 

Society of North America. It is published several times a year 

and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business 

correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to the 

Secretary, PO Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership dues 

are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 (sustaining). 

Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the 

Editor, preferably by email (, or mailed 

to PO Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 94942. 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Mark Burstein, Editor in Chief 

Matthew Demakos, Editor of "The Rectory Umbrella" 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 

The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Alan Tannenbaum, 

^ . Mark Burstein, 

Cindy Watter, 

On the Front Cover: 

The White Rabbit from Ralph Steadman's Alice in Wonderland (Toronto: 

Firefly Books, 2003) is © 2003 Ralph Steadman and used by permission. 

See also page 37 in this issue. Mr. Steadman welcomes visitors to 





Mr. Dodgson and the Royal Family 
Edward Wakeling 


High Society Days in New York 
August A. Imholtz Jr. 


Still More Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews 
August A. Imholtz Jr. and Clare Imholtz 


The Authentic Wasp 
Matthew Demakos 


The G(ig Writer 
Clare Imholtz 






In Memoriam: Derek Hudson 



.AJan Tannenbaum 



Le leme Colloque International Lewis Carroll 
Lawrence Gasquet 



See You in the Funny Papers 
If You Meet Sabuda On the Road 

In Brief 

Ready, Aim, Firefly! 
Mark Burstein 

A Dark Vision 
Larry Hall 

Hep, Hep, Hooray! 
David Schaefer 

Lewis Carroll and His Illustrators 


From the Antipathies 

Addenda, Errata, Corrigenda, &' Illuminata 


Sic, sic, sic 

Picturing Dreams 
Andrew Sell on 

The Dodgson Condensation 
Francine Abeles 



Books — A rticles — Cyberspace — Conferences and 

Lectures — Exhibitions — Performances Noted — 

Auctions — Media — Things 


"She ate a little bit, and said anxiously to herself 'Which xvay? Which way?' 
holding her hand on the top of her head to feel which xvay it was groioing. . ." 

We have been just overwhelmed by the universally positive response to 
our redesign of the Knight Letter, and promise to keep on improving 
things. Designer Andrew Ogus did a magnificent job with the 
previous issue (and this one!) and will continue in this capacity. We have also 
doubled our "staff," with the turning over of many editorial responsibilities for 
the "Rectory Umbrella" section to Matt Demakos. He and I have engaged in 
a lengthy dialogue in cyberspace to further tighten up the standards of style, 
language, and practice. We have accepted The Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth 
edition, as our guide and thus, in contrast to past practices, have "translated" all 
articles into American spelling, grammar, and punctuation — the only exceptions 
being when certain material is directly quoted. 

We have also collaborated on a style guide. Articles are by and large sup- 
plied with endnotes rather than footnotes, and editorial comments are now 
clearly marked as such. We have also been stricter about the use of abbreviations 
and shortened titles. Furthermore, we are now officially a periodical, having 
registered with the National Serials Data Program of the Library of Congress 
and possess an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). 

"The Rectory Umbrella" in this issue features the first part of a fine study, 
"Mr. Dodgson and the Royal Family," by Edward Wakeling, editor of the new 
multi-volume edition of the Diaries being published by the Lewis Carroll Society 
(UK). Matt Demakos has himself given us a scholarly musing on the authenticity 
of the "Wasp in the Wig" episode, August Imholtz has contributed an amusing 
report of our fall meeting, and Clare Imholtz has discovered a previously un- 
known set of drawings by the venerable Wanda Gag. 

Our valued contributors, other than those credited in bylines, include: Earl 
Abbe, Fran Abeles, Joel Birenbaum, Gary Brockman, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, 
Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Patt Griffin, Armelle Futterman, August 
Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, Stan Isaacs, Janet Jurist, Devra Kunin, Hugues Lebailly, 
Charles Lovett, Stephanie Lovett, Dayna McCausland, Lucille Posner, Andrew 
Sellon, Alan Tannenbaum, Alison Tannenbaum, Edward Wakeling, and Cindy 

Given the current volume of this magazine and its overworked staff, it is 
most likely that this publication will become officially semiannual. 

Ad majorem Carrolli gloriam! 

Mark Burstein 


Mk. Dodgson and ihe Rojal Vamily 

Edward Wakeling 

Part I: Queen Victoria and Her Family 


Charles L. Dodgson was acquainted with various members 
of the Royal Family headed by Queen Victoria, some to a 
greater and some to a lesser degree. WTiat was his attitude 
to royalty? How did he come to make their acquaintance? 
What was their reaction to him? Did Dodgson's personal 
knowledge of members of the Royal Family influence his 
writing? I will attempt to answer all these questions and, 
ultimately, explain Dodgson's relationship with some par- 
ticular members of the Royal Family, which can only be 
described as intimate and friendly. 

Both of his Alice books abound with royalty. They 
contain kings and queens, royal children, coiuliers and 
extended members of a royal family such as a marchio- 
ness (in the original story) and a duchess. Part of this is 
because Dodgson adopted the games of playing caixls and 
chess to structure his two stories. But the royal members 
are given key roles; their parts are important and their 
dialogue is significant and memorable. 

"Where do you come from?" said the Red Queen. 
"And where are you going? Look up, speak nicely, 
and don't twiddle your fingers all the time." 

Alice attended to all these directions, and ex- 
plained, as well as she could, that she had lost her 

"I don't know what you mean by your ■wAy,'' said 
the Queen: "all the ways about here belong to me — 
but why did you come out here at all?" she added in 

a kinder tone, "(kirtsey while you're thinking what to 
say. It saves time."' 

There is a strong sense that Dodgson is parodying the 
way that adults instruct children, with an emphasis on 
"instructing" rather than "talking to." Maybe it's the 
governess who speaks here. Miss Prickett, governess to 
the Liddell children — or "Pricks" as the children called 
her — had a reputation for being very much in control 
and in charge. Dodgson once described: "The Red Queen 
... as a Fury . . . /ler passion must be cold and calm; she 
must be formal and strict, yet not unkindly; pedantic to 
the tenth degree, the concentrated essence of all govern- 
esses."- Alice and her sisters may have recognized the 
parody of the instructions given to them whenever they 
were introduced to royalty. 

Each of the Oxford colleges has assigned to them a 
"Visitor" (with a capital "V"). This is someone with status. 
This nominated person pays an official visit to the college 
to ensure that all is proceeding according to the demands 
of tradition, protocol, and custom. The Visitor of CHuist 
Church is usually the reigning monarch although on occa- 
sions it has been the Lord Chancellor. Queen Victoria was 
Visitor and made several journeys to Christ Church during 
her reign, always spending time at the Deanery. 

The college was founded by Henry \1II under letters 
patent dated November 4, 1546. However, the buildings 
were begun in 1.525 when Cardinal Wolsey, then at the 
height of his power and fame, decided to create the col- 


Queen Victoria 


m. Albert 


Prince Consort 



Princess Royal 

Dowager Empress of Germa ny 

Albert Edward 


Prince of Wales 

King Edward VII 

m. Alexandra 

Princess of Denmark 



Grand Duchess 

of Hesse-Darmstadt 



Duke of Edinburgh 

and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 



Princess Helena 

of Schleswig-Hols tei n 


Dowager Duchess of Argyll 


Duke of Con naught 



Duke of Albany 

m. Helena 


of Waldeck-Pynnont 

(Duchess of Albany) 


Princess ofBattenberg 


Princess Royal 


(brother of Alexandra) 


Crown Prince of Denmark 

King of Denmark 


Countess ofAthlone 

Charles Edward 

Duke of Albany 

Queen Victcma had nine children and, eventually, nine sons- and 
daughters-in-law. The members of the Royal Family that Dodgson 
met or corresponded with are shown in bold type. This chart also 
shows Frederick, the Crown Prince of Denmark, once photographed by 
Dodgson, the brother of Princess Alexandra, who married the Prince 
of Wales. The Queen had many grandchildren, only three of whom 
are shown above. The two children of Prince Leopold are the subject 
of part two of this article. 

lege under royal license, and to name it Cardinal College. 
It was projected on a magnificent scale and supported fi- 
nancially by Wolsey from his own private wealth. Cardinal 
Wolsey fell out of the King's favor in 1529 and all his pos- 
sessions were forfeited to the Crown, and Cardinal College 
in its incomplete state was dissolved. But, in 1532, Henry 
established a new college on the same site, calling it King 
Henry VIII's College in Oxford. In 1545 the college "Christ 
Church" was established, combining the academic college 
with the new Oxford Cathedral which was built on the site 
to replace the old Cathedral at Osney. The link with the 
royal household was firmly established and remains to 
this day. Our present Queen, her sculptured head resting 
below the great Holbein portrait of Henry VIII in central 
position at the far end of Hall, is today's Visitor of Christ 
Church. She makes private visits to the Deanery from time 
to time. 

Queen Victoria succeeded to the throne following 
the death of her uncle William IV in 1837. Hence, by 
the time that Dodgson came to Christ Church in 1851 
as an undergraduate, the Queen was already the Visitor. 
Thomas Gaisford was made Dean in 1831 and there- 
fore his appointment was not influenced by the Queen. 
However, when he died in 1855, the new appointment 
of Henry Liddell was made by Lord Palmerston with her 
approval. Liddell was already well-known to the Queen. In 
1846 he was appointed Domestic Chaplain to the Prince 
Consort, and this required him to preach at Windsor in 
the presence of the Royal Family. He was also appointed 
Headmaster of Westminster School in the same year, and 
this brought about Royal patronage. 

As an undergraduate, Dodgson was unlikely to meet 
the Queen, but when he was appointed Mathematical 
Lecturer in 1855, this position changed. The Liddells 
frequently entertained members of the University at the 
Deanery including the Visitor, and Dodgson received invi- 
tations to attend. His first meeting with the Royal Family 
at the Deanery came in 1860. However, he mentions the 
Queen in his diary for the first time in 1855. On May 17 he 
wrote: "I hear that Millais' picture of 'The Rescue' in the 
R. A. [Royal Academy] this year is considered very fine: as 
also Leighton's picture of Cimabue's Madonna, which the 
Queen has given 600 guineas for — but it is said to be the 
poorest exhibition for years. "'^ 


During the summer of 1858, Queen Victoria and Prince 
Albert bestowed a special honor on Christ Church — they 
decided to send the Prince of Wales to Oxford, and Christ 
Church was the chosen college to which he would be 
attached. Liddell received a royal summons to meet the 
Queen at Osborne House to discuss arrangements. Henry 
Acland, friend and doctor to Liddell, was also summoned; 
he was to be the Prince of Wales' medical adviser. The 
Prince iTiatriculated on October 18, 1859. Liddell record- 
ed the ceremony in a letter to his father: 

He came down in a royal carriage (not by special 
train) at about four o'clock. I received him on the 
platform, and followed him to his house. The Vice- 

Chancellor and Proctors then called to pay their 
respects; then the Mayor and two Aldermen with 
an address; I standing by and introducing them. 
Then I went down to Christ Church, where we had 
the gates shut and all the men drawn up in the 
Quadrangle. At five he came, and the bells struck 
up as he entered. He walked to my house between 
two lines of men, who capped him. I went out to 
meet him, and as we entered the house there was a 
spontaneous cheer.^ 

There can be no doubt that Dodgson witnessed this 
event. Sadly his diaries are missing for this period, so we 
do not know what he wrote about the occasion. The Prince 
resided at Frewin Hall for two years, attended Chapel and 
lectures, and occasionally dined in Hall. 

On December 12, 1860, the Queen paid a visit to Ox- 
ford, probably to discuss with the Dean the progress of her 
son at Christ Church. Dodgson was present and he gave a 
detailed account in his diary of his conversation with the 

He shook hands very graciously, and I began with 
a sort of apology for having been so importunate 
about the photograph. He said something of the 
weather being against it, and I asked if the Ameri- 
cans had victimised him much as a sitter; he said 
they had, but he did not think they had succeeded 
well, and I told him of the new American process 
of taking twelve thousand photographs in an hour. 
Edith Liddell coming by at the moment, 1 remarked 
on the beautiful tableau which the children might 
make: he assented, and also said, in answer to my 
question, that he had seen and admired my photo- 
graphs of them. I then said that I hoped, as I had 
missed the photograph, he would at least give me 
his autograph in my album, which he promised to 
do. Thinking I had better bring the talk to an end, 
I concluded by saying that, if he would like copies 
of any of my photographs, 1 should feel honoured 
by his accepting them; he thanked me for this, and 
I then drew back, as he did not seem inclined to 
pursue the conversation."' 

By this time, Dodgson had taken a number of photo- 
graphs of the Liddell children, and clearly the Prince of 
Wales had already seen some of them, probably in albums 
at the Deanery. The photograph of the three children on 
a sofa was taken in the Deanery garden in 1858. Alice and 
Lorina dressed in Chinese costume and the photograph 
of Alice and Lorina on a see-saw in the Deanery garden 
were taken in 1860. 

Dodgson's rather bland account of the visit in his 
diary is in stark contrast to the letter he sent home to his 
brothers and sisters in which he recounts the same occa- 
sion with more candour, not to say a lack of royal respect. 
"I had never seen her [the Queen] so near before, nor 
on her feet, and was shocked to find how short, not to say 
dumpy, and (with all loyalty be it spoken), how plain she 
is." Later in the letter, Dodgson recounted the tale of the 
Prince's autograph: 

I wrote a note to General Bruce, asking if I might 
bring my album to Frewin Hall, and see the au- 
tograph done, pleading that that would much 
increase its value in my eyes. He wrote appointing 
10 on Saturday, and added that the Prince would 
at the same time select some of the photographs. I 
sent over the box of albums, and went at 10. Gen- 
eral Bruce joined me in the hall (a sort of morning 
room), and the Prince came in directly afterwards, 
and seemed very friendly and more at his ease 
than he was at the Deanery.... When the box was 
opened, he looked through the second album, es- 
pecially admiring the "cherry" group, the Chinese 
group, and the large one of the 2 Haringtons. 

He said he had no time to finish looking 
through them then, and proposed they should be 
left, but on my saying (an awful breach of court 
etiquette, no doubt), that I was expecting some 
friends that morning to see them (the John Slat- 
ters), he fixed on Tuesday (today) to have them 
sent over again. He consented to give the auto- 
graph then, but would not use my gold pen, as I 
wanted, saying that he wrote best with quill, and 
went to fetch a good one, with which he signed, 
adding the place and date at my suggestion. There 
ends my interview with Royalty.^ 

So, in this first meeting with royalty, and by Dodgson's 
own hand the Queen is "dumpy" and "plain" — not much 
loyal respect shown here! His opinion of the Queen was 
recorded just eighteen months before the invention of 
Alice's adventures in which a queen plays a prominent 
part. But more of this later. 

We must not assume that Dodgson was anything but 
a loyal subject of the Queen. He had been brought up to 
respect both his God and his Sovereign. In this he was cer- 
tainly steadfast. He was in all respects a true Victorian — he 
looked up to the Royal Family as a model for society's 
conduct. He was, himself, socially conscious, coming from 
the upper middle class of the clergy, the legal profession, 
and officers of the armed forces. His forebears came from 
all three of these ranks of society. His own position as a 
lecturer at Christ Church also held him in that social class. 
And we must not forget that he said he had a "complete" 
photographic set of members of the Royal Family, proving 
his admiration of them. 


In 1863 Dodgson had further contact with royalty, and it 
has been suggested that this occasion influenced him in 
the writing of Through the Looking-Glass. Mavis Batey, the 
author of Alice's Adventures in Oxford,'' was the first to real- 
ize that Looking-Glass contained echoes of the wedding of 
the Prince and Princess of Wales on March 10, 1863. 

Oxford celebrated the wedding with illuminations 
and a tree-planting ceremony that involved three children 
important to Dodgson: Lorina, Alice, and Edith Liddell. 
The event unfolds with the arrival of Dodgson's brother, 
Edwin, from Rugby School, the day before the wedding, to 
join in the Oxford celebrations. Dodgson wrote: "Received 


a note from Alice, asking me to escort her round to see 
the illuminations tomorrow evening. Goodeve is to act as 
escort for Ina, and Bigg for Edith."" Louis Arthur Goodeve 
and Charles Bigg were, like Dodgson, Students of Christ 
Church, the latter being a tutor. On the day of the wed- 
ding, Dodgson recorded: 

Edwin and I went into the Broad Walk to see the 
three Deaner)' children plant three trees along the 
Cherwell, in memory of the day, each delivered a 
short speech over her tree.... we went to the Dean- 
ery for the children, and set out. We soon lost the 
others, and Alice and I with Edwin, took the roimd 
of all the principal streets in about two hours, 
bringing her home by half-past nine. The mob was 
dense, but well conducted. The fireworks abun- 
dant, and some of the illuminations very beautiful. 
It was delightful to see the thorough abandonment 
with which Alice enjoyed the whole thing. 

The Wedding-day of the Prince of Wales I mark 
with a white stone." 

Was the white stone for the marriage of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, or some other activity during the day? 
I think we can safely assume the latter. The trees planted 
by the children have not survived; they were destroyed by 
the devastating outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1970s 
that killed off most of the trees in the Broad Walk. 

After the royal wedding, the happy couple toured vari- 
ous parts of the country so that they could be seen by the 
masses. One visit was to Oxford the following June when 
the entourage stayed at the Deanery. Dodgson wrote on 
June 15, 1863: 

Went over to the Deanery in the forenoon, and 
was shown the Royal chamber (most splendidly 
furnished) and the things for the Bazaar. I noticed 
also a magnificent Album (for Cartes de Visite) 
hired from Howell and James, which had been 
originally made for the maids of honour to give the 
Royal couple (and has the plume etc. emblazoned 
on a magnificent onyx); I offered to fill this from 
my own albums, which I took over to the Deanery, 
and had an hour or two of work in transferring the 

A search among the royal archives at Windsor Castle 
has failed to find this album. Maybe it was for show only, 
and the photographs were subsequently returned to 
Dodgson after the royal couple left Oxford. 

The Prince and Princess arrived the following day on 
June 16. Dodgson's diary provides the detail from his per- 

I was up in Bayne's rooms with a number of 
friends of his.... I had my telescope up there (for 
the accommodation of which he broke out a pane 
of one window) and with it we managed to see 
them wonderfully well, as they stood under the 
awning opposite, for the Princess to present to 
the Volunteers their prizes.... The children were 
selling some white kittens (like Persian) and as 
Alice did not dare offer hers to the Princess, I vol- 

unteered to plead for her, and asked the Prince if 
the Princess would not like a kitten, on which she 
turned round and said to me "oh, but I've bought 
one of those kittens already," (which I record as the 
only remark she is likely ever to make to me). Ina's 
had been the favoured one. For some while I went 
about with the children, trying to get their kittens 
sold, when suddenly the Bazaar was opened, and 
the place filled with a dense mob. 

Dodgson was in the habit of making lengthy diary 
entries when the events of the day warranted it. This is one 
such occasion during which he met and spoke to some of 
the Royals. A few days later, on June 23, Dodgson went 
back to the Deanery and took "two pictures with dry col- 
lodion plates . . . one of the bedstead in the Royal room at 
the Deanery, and the other of the Deanery and Cathedral, 
from Sandford's rooms. For the latter picture Ina and 
Alice sat in the windows of the Royal chamber, and have 
come out very well in the picture." These pictures, taken 
with a borrowed camera, have not come to light. But why 
should Dodgson want to photograph the bed that the 
Prince and Princess of Wales slept in during their honey- 
moon tour in Oxford? 

So what has all this to do with Through the Looking- 
Glass? Well, recall that in the first few paragraphs Alice is 
saying "Let's pretend we're kings and queens" and goes 
on to say to her kitten "Let's pretend that you're the Red 
Queen," leading into the world of chess, the game that 
bonds the book into a cohesive whole. One can imagine 
that the Liddell children were all groomed to do and say 
the right thing when the Prince and Princess of Wales 
became part of the household for a couple of days, along 
with the quotation given at the outset. "Speak in French 
when you can't think of the English for a thing — turn out 
your toes as you walk — and remember who you are!"'" was 
further advice from the Red Queen. One can almost imag- 
ine the tone of Miss Prickett or even Mrs. Liddell in these 
words of instruction. 

Illuminations, fireworks, garden fetes, and great din- 
ners play their part in the visit of the newlyweds to Christ 
Church and also in Alice's adventures in Looking-Glass 
Land. An entertainment brought to Oxford after the royal 
wedding was the "Talking Fish" extravaganza which may 
have influenced Humpty Dumpty's poem in Looking-Glass: 

I sent a message to the fish: 
I told them 'This is what I wish' 

The little fishes of the sea. 
They sent an answer back to me. 

The little fishes' answer was 

'We cannot do it. Sir, because '" 

We'll never know if Dodgson saw this "Wondrous 
Phenomenon" at the Assembly Rooms in Oxford,'-' or 
whether he took the Liddell children with him, but it does 
seem an interesting coincidence that the entertainment 
and the poem take the same most unusual theme. 

Mavis Batey points out that the Lion and Unicorn 
from the royal coat of arms, two other Looking-Glass char- 
acters, were illuminated on many of the Oxford buildings 

during the celebrations. Above Canterbury Gate at Christ 
Church there was a large rotating crown that Alice could 
easily see from the Deanery. Mavis Batey's book and her se- 
quel, The Adventures ofAlice,^'^ give more details of the links 
between fiction and reality. 


Acquiring a set of professionally produced photographs 
of the Royal Family was not quite the same as getting 
them to sit before his own camera, and Dodgson was will- 
ing and eager to undertake this task. As we have heard, 
he was unsuccessful with the Prince of Wales. We can 
assume that he did not pursue Her Majesty the 
Queen with this idea. However, he sue 
ceeded in getting the Prince of Wales' 
brother-in-law to have his photograph 
taken. Frederick, the Crown Prince 
of Denmark, was an imdergraduate 
at Christ Church. His sister, Princess 
Alexandra of Denmark, had married 
the Prince of Wales in 1863. Another 
of Dodgson 's important photograph- 
ic sitters was named after the Princess, 
Alexandra "Xie" Kitchin. Mrs. Kitch- 
in's father was British Consul at 
Copenhagen, and she herself was a 
personal friend of Princess Alexandra 
of Denmark, who became Xie's god- 
mother. The Crown Prince's career 
at Oxford was interrupted by the out- 
break of war between Denmark and 
Prussia over the Schleswig-Holstein 
problem. But before Frederick left 
Oxford, Dodgson succeeded — with 
the Kitchins' help — in getting him 
to come and have his photograph 

Dodgson recorded the day, No- 
vember 18, 1863, in his diary: 

A memorable day. Kitchin called about half-past 
11 to say he would bring the Prince to be photo- 
graphed at half-past 12 (he had consented some 
time ago to sit). Went over to Badcocks and had 
everything ready when they arrived. They staid 
about half an hour, and I took two negatives of him, 
a 6 x 5 half-length, and a 10 x 8 full-length. In the 
intervals he looked over my photographs that are 
moimted on cards, and he also signed his name in 
my album, saying as he did so that it was the first 
time he had used his new title. (He is now Crown- 
Prince, the news of the death of the old king having 
come on Monday.) He conversed pleasantly and 
sensibly, and is evidently a much brighter specimen 
of royalty than his brother-in-law. 

Clearly, Dodgson was still smarting about the rebuff he 
received from the Prince of Wales who refused to let him 
take his photograph. But to say that Frederick was a "much 
brighter specimen of royalty" was probably tantamount to 

Dodgson, [Frederick] , Prince of Denmark, 1863. 
Albumen print of collodion negative, 20.7 x 16.0 an. 
University oflexas at Austin, Harry Ransom Center, 
Gei~nsheim Collection. 

treason! Of course, it might also be true. Frederick looks 
relatively intelligent in his academic gown. In the photo- 
graph, he stands and is taken full length. In the other, he 
is seated at a desk. The Prince was very cooperative. The 
photographic process was time-consuming as the glass- 
plate had to be prepared just prior to the photograph 
being taken. Since two photographs were taken, there 
was an interval between the two photographic exposures. 
Dodgson gains another success in getting the Prince to 
sign his name in the album; he was just as keen to get auto- 
graphs as he was to get photographs of royalty (or, for that 
matter, any celebrity). The glass-plate was developed im- 
mediately, but the photographic print was made at 
a later date and inserted into the album. 
Dodgson gave a copy of the "seated" 
print to the Liddells, and a copy ap- 
peared in one of their albums. (This is 
after the supposed split between Dodg- 
son and the Liddell family.) 


We know that the Royal Family had 
access to the Alice books. Dodgson 
sent a copy of Wonderland to Princess 
Beatrice, Queen Victoria's youngest 
daughter, on November 22, 1865. 
Dodgson's diar)' lists the recipients 
of presentation copies, and Princess 
Beatrice was second only to Alice 
Liddell in that list. Dodgson received 
the following letter from Lady Augusta 
Stanley, Lady-in-Waiting to the Ro\al 
household, dated December 18, 
1865, in response to his presentation 
copy of Wonderland sent to Princess 

The Deanery, Westminster 
Dear Mr. Dodgson, 

It seems in consequence of an oversight that 
Sir Charles Phipps did not write to acknowledge 
the little book of which Her Majesty was pleased to 
sanction the presentation to the Princess Beatrice. 

He requested me to convey Her acknowledge- 
ment to you. I must add, that various members of 
the Household have added it to their nursery Li- 
braries where it is established as a proven favourite. 

Yoms truly, 

Augusta Stanley'^ 

Dodgson also sent Princess Beatrice copies of the for- 
eign language editions of Alice. The Windsor C>astle Royal 
Archive contains a copy of the German Alice (1869) with 
an inscription to the Princess that reads in a rather gush- 
ing tone: "Presented to Her Royal Highness, The Princess 
Beatrice, by Her obedient Servant, the Author." The book 
bears Princess Beatrice's bookplate and is bound in full 
leather in green morocco with one decorative and three 
plain lines of border roimd each board — not the usual 


WTiile we are talking about the Royal Family and Queen 
Victoria in particular, mention must be made of an anec- 
dote that links Dodgson to her. This story, and its denial, 
was recalled in 1932 by Thomas Banks Strong, Bishop of 
Oxford. Strong, who knew Dodgson as well as anyone liv- 
ing at the time, said: 

The . . . legend, frequently repeated, as to which 
I am wholly sceptical, is that some one presented 
a copy of Alice in Wonderland to the Queen, who 
asked to have any future works by the author sent 
to her, and that he sent her a work on the Theory 
of Numbers or some such subject. I disbelieve this 
for two reasons. It would have been contrary to 
Dodgson's whole attitude towards the Throne and 
to his good manners to put a gibe of this sort upon 
the Queen. And it was entirely contrary to his atti- 
tude towards his books. He always refused to admit 
to any but specially privileged persons that he was 
Lewis Carroll.''' 

The story is clearly untrue — Dodgson, who indicated 
that he had seen reports in newspapers about it, denied it 
in the second edition to Symbolic Logic: Part 1, Elementary in 
a postscript to an advertisement for the other two parts of 
this projected book. He wrote: 

I take this opportunity of giving what publicity I can 
to my contradiction of a silly story, which has been 
going the round of the papers, about my having 
presented certain books to Her Majesty the Queen. 
It is so constantly repeated, and is such absolute 
fiction, that I think it worth while to state, once for 
all, that it is utterly false in every particular: nothing 
even resembling it has ever occurred."' 

So far, nobody has been able to find the offending 
rumor printed in any newspaper of the time. The anec- 
dote had probably existed for many years — Alice came out 
in late 1865 and this was followed by An Elementary Treatise 
on Determinants in 1867. Why did Dodgson wait almost 
thirty years before going into print to deny the story? 

For one with great respect for the Queen, it is surpris- 
ing, therefore, to find him pretending in a letter to the 
thirteen-year-old Margaret Cunnynghame that he refused 
to supply the Queen with a photograph of himself. The 
letter, dated April 7, 1868, includes this paragraph: 

But oh, Maggie, how can you ask for a better one 
of me than the one I sent! It is one of the best ever 
done! Such grace, such dignity, such benevolence, 

such as a great secret (please don't repeat 

it) the Queen sent to ask for a copy of it, but as it is 
against my rule to give in such a case, [I was obliged 
to answer:] "Mr. Dodgson presents his compli- 
ments to Her Majesty, and regrets to say that his 
rule is never to give his photograph except to young 
ladies." I am told she was annoyed about it, and 
said, "I'm not so old as all that comes to," and one 
doesn't like to annoy Queens, but really I couldn't 
help it, you know.'" 

This is, of course, exactly how stories and rumors 
begin. Another instance of pretence occurred when he 
fabricated a letter from Queen Victoria to himself and 
gave it to the Drury sisters, to impress them that the Queen 
had invited him to Buckingham Palace to attend a garden- 
party: "I hope you will be able to come to our Garden Party 
on Friday afternoon."'*^ 

Morton Cohen, in his introduction to Interviews and 
Recollections, writes: "With effort, a claim could even be 
made of a distant relationship to Queen Victoria. It [the 
Dodgson family] was an upper-crust family, steeped in 
tradition, religious, devoted to serving God, country, and 
mankind."'-' Cohen does not expand on this genealogical 
link with the Royal Family. It appears that Dodgson was 
descended from Matilda de Hoghton, the illegitimate 
daughter of William the Conqueror.-^" 

However, the link between Alice Liddell and the pres- 
ent Queen, and therefore back to Queen Victoria, is much 
clearer. In Anne Clark's book The Real Alice,'^^ that link is 
made apparent with a family tree showing the Liddells 
descended from the family of Lyon, and from this family 
comes the Bowes-Lyon branch that produced Elizabeth 
Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon, the late Queen Mother. 


One lasting relationship between Dodgson and the Royals 
came with Queen Victoria's youngest son. Prince Leopold. 
This began when Leopold was a teenager, and continued 
after his early death with his wife and children. 

The Prince was, by all accounts, strong-willed and 
intelligent with a great love of life. He was also a hemophil- 
iac and suffered from epilepsy. As such, his youth was very 
restricted — with few outside influences — and the Queen 
was very protective towards him. He had a personal tutor 
named Mr. Shuldham, from Eton, who left to marry in 
1866. His replacement was Robinson Duckworth, of river- 
trip fame, recommended by Dean Stanley of Westminster 
and Dean Liddell. Duckworth found a very introverted 
thirteen-year-old who was emotionally disturbed, immobile 
and depressed. He set about reconstructing the Prince's 
life, removing the claustrophobic atmosphere that he had 
suffered up until then. To broaden the Prince's mind, 
Duckworth suggested that he collect autographs and 
signed letters, very much in fashion at the time. He hoped 
that the Prince would end up corresponding and convers- 
ing with some of the important people of his day. 

Gradually, the collection began to grow with con- 
tributions from Kingsley, Tennyson, Disraeli, Landseer, 
Longfellow, and many others. Most of the letters began 
"My dear Duckworth" so it was clear that he was the driv- 
ing force behind the collection. Duckworth also used 
his Oxford connections to add to the autographs. One 
letter pasted into Prince Leopold's album simply says: 
"Believe me, at 1.30 a.m., sleepily but sincerely yours, C. 
L. Dodgson. "-^^ Duckworth must have told Dodgson about 
the Prince's restricted life with the result that in November 
1867 Dodgson sent Leopold a bundle of autograph let- 
ters for his collection. These letters were sent to Dodgson 
by such people as George MacDonald, Charlotte Yonge, 


Henry Liddon, Arthur Hughes, Hohnan Hunt, and John 

In July 1867, Duckworth, who had gained the trust 
of the Queen, was appointed the Prince's Governor. 
The Queen, in a letter to her eldest daughter, described 
Duckworth as: "a really most talented and charming per- 
son... The only objection I have to him is that he is a 
clergyman. However, he is enlightened and so free from 
the usual prejudices of his profession that I feel I must 
get over my dislike to that. Mr. Duckworth is an excel- 
lent preacher and good-looking besides."-^ 
Make of that what you will! To replace 
Duckworth as tutor, Robert Hawthorn 
Collins was appointed and would follow 
him to Oxford and remain a member of 
the Prince's household for many years. 
Duckworth left the Royal household in 

Prince Leopold had a burning 
ambition to attend a university, possibly 
influenced by Duckworth. Although the 
Queen was not entirely in favor of the 
idea, she finally relented, but set strin- 
gent rules about his attendance being 
for study alone, and not for general 
amusement. At the age of nineteen, on 
November 27, 1872, Prince Leopold 
matriculated at Oxford in the Deanery 
at Christ Church. Bells were rung in 
the churches in Oxford and also at 
Christ Church to celebrate the occa- 
sion. Dr. Acland, his medical adviser, 
and Dean Liddell became responsible 
for the Prince. His own tutor, Collins, 
was the link between the Prince and the 
Queen. Acland foimd a house in St. Giles, 
Wykeham House, to be the Prince's residence. After the 
matriculation ceremony, Acland and Liddell dined with 
the Prince at Wykeham House, no doubt to discuss the 
options for study. Leopold did not select a degree course, 
but chose a range of lectures to attend including art with 
John Ruskin and chemistry with Dodgson's friend and col- 
league, Augustus Vernon Harcourt.^'' 

The following year, Dodgson was seeking a photo- 
graphic sitting from this latest member of the Royal Family 
to attend Oxford University. On May 26, 1875, Dodgson 
recorded his visit to Wykeham House: 

I foiuid myself treated as senior guest, and had to 
sit next to the young host, who was particularly un- 
assuming and genial in manner: I do not wonder at 
his being so universal a favoinite. After limch, we 
adjourned to a large tent in the garden, where cof- 
fee and cigars were provided. I showed the Prince 
a few photographs I had taken with me, and after 
arranging for a sitting on Wednesday next, took my 

On June 2, 1875, he added: 

The Prince came alone about 1 IK', and was joined 
afterwards by Collins. He staid till nearly 1, and I 

Dodgson, [Prince Leopold, standing], 1875. 
Albumen print of collodion negative, 17.8 x 12.7 cm. 
University of Texas at Austin, Hany Ransom Center, 
Gemsheim Collection. 

took two photographs of him, but neither was quite 
free from moving. He looked over a number of 
photographs, and chose some for me to give him. 

One of these photographs shows Leopold standing, 
the other sitting. They were taken in Dodgson's Tom Quad 
rooftop studio above his rooms at Christ Church. Leopold 
signed his name in one of Dodgson's albums.-'' Although a 
little blurred by the Prince's slight movement, the photo- 
graphs show a self-possessed and confident young man, at 
ease as an undergraduate. 


Expressly against the Queen's 
instructions, Leopold began to 
enjoy the social life that Oxford 
had to offer. This centered 
around the Deanery at Christ 
Church, with Mrs. Liddell promi- 
nent in making her home a place 
of entertainment fit for a Prince. 
Leopold became acquainted with 
the Liddell household and the 
Liddell daughters: in particular, 
Lorina, Alice, and Edith, now 
aged 25, 22, and 20 years respec- 
tively. He had undergraduate 
friends too; Aubrey Harcourt, 
later to become engaged to Edith 
Liddell, was one of them. In the 
spring of 1873 Leopold confided 
to his closest friends that he was 
in love. He talked of marriage. 
She was an Oxford girl but her 
name does not appear in the 
records kept by the Royal house- 
hold. It is likely that the Queen found out, and "was not 

W'e have a clue to the identity of this maid in Dodgson's 
squib on the architectural changes that Dean Liddell had 
set in motion at Christ Church entitled The Vision of the 
Three T's, a dramatic parody of Isaak Walton's Compleat 
Angler {\^b2>) . In this, Dodgson mocks Mrs. Liddell, calling 
her a "King-fisher," no doubt satirizing the frequent visits 
of the Prince to the Deanery and her wish to make him a 
royal son-in-law! The Piscator states: 

I will say somewhat of the Nobler kinds, and chiefly 
of the Gold-fish, which is a species highly thought 
of, and much sought after in these parts, not only 
by men, but by divers birds, as for example the 

An undergraduate adds to the speculation. John 
Howe Jenkins wrote a sctirrilous piece about life at Oxford 
at the time, thinlv disguising the gossip and the rumor in 
his dramatic pamphlet called Cakeless. Although it was 
published anonymously, the author's name was discov- 
ered, and Jenkins was sent down. He dared to suggest that 
the Dean and Mrs. Liddell, named Apollo and Diana in 

the verse play, had been disappointed with the marriage of 
their eldest daughter, Lorina, to William Baillie Skene, in 
February 1874, and that they were being more careful with 
their remaining daughters. He went on to suggest that the 
potential bridegrooms were Yerbua (Aubrey Harcourt, a 
friend of the Prince), Rivulus (Lord Brooke, another close 
friend of the Prince), and Regius (obviously Leopold). He 
muddled the possible brides, probably because he didn't 
know the Liddell daughters well enough, but the attack on 
Mrs. Liddell was entirely transparent. 

The name of Leopold's love, by tradition rather than 
record, was Alice Liddell. Not coming into contact with 
many young ladies at Oxford, he was certain to find the 
Liddell sisters an attraction, and Alice — well educated, 
artistic, musical, and good-looking — especially fetching. 
Edith Liddell may have already formed an attachment to 
Aubrey Harcourt although they did not announce their 
engagement until 1876, two years later. Rhoda was prob- 
ably too young to be considered at this point, being just 
fifteen and not as attractive as her older sisters. But it was 
not to be; the romance between Alice Liddell and Prince 
Leopold either foundered or was blocked. We will never 
know for certain what happened. In May 1873, the Queen 
sent for Leopold, and he traveled to Balmoral. He did 
not see the Liddells again until December of that year (a 
possible "cooling off period), and from then on talk of 
marriage was over. 

There are other clues to a possible romantic link be- 
tween Alice and Leopold. When Alice married Reginald 
Hargreaves at Westminster Abbey in September 1880, 
she wore a pearl horseshoe brooch on her wedding dress 
given to her by Prince Leopold as a wedding gift. However, 
the Prince did not attend the wedding. 


Dodgson made further contact with Prince Leopold in 
1876 when he wished to present a copy of The Hunting 
of the Snark to Princess Louise, the eldest daughter of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales. His letter, dated January 31, 
explains his problem. 

I am hoping to bring out a new child's book this 
Easter, and that I wish to be allowed the honour of 
presenting a copy to the Princess of Wales' eldest 
daughter. I have asked one or two friends, who I 
thought would be able to obtain this permission, 
but they assure me that the request, and the gift 
itself, must go through the hands of a Secretary, or 
some other official. I should feel that all the poetry 
of such a gift, as sent by an author to a child, would 
evaporate in such a process of transmission. I could 

as easily imagine Othello's defence, "Most potent, 
grave, and reverend signiors," read out by the Clerk 
of the Court. If your Royal Highness could either 
present the book, for me, to the little Princess 
herself; or get permission for me to send it direct, 
I should esteem such an honour highly: but if the 
only available process is that the book should pass 
through the hands of a Secretary, I had rather not 
send it at all.''-' 

The Prince replied promising Dodgson to transmit 
the request to his sister-in-law, the Princess of Wales, on 
her return from Denmark. "The amount of etiquette with 
which we are surrounded is indeed very tiresome," the 
Prince added, "(though, at times, useful), but it is not in 
my power to diminish it."^" It is not known whether Dodg- 
son ever sent the book to Princess Louise Victoria Alexan- 
dra Dagmar, eldest daughter of the Prince and Princess of 

Prince Leopold was created Duke of Albany in 1881 
and was married to Princess Helene Frederica Augusta 
Waldeck-Pyrmont in April 1882. Their first child was born 
in February 1883. Alice Liddell wrote to congratulate the 
Prince, at the same time inviting him to be godfather to 
her second son who had been born in January that year. 
Leopold wrote from Windsor: 

Many thanks for your very kind letter of good 
wishes on the birth of our little girl. The event is, 
as you can imagine, a source oi great pleasure to us. 
It is very good of you asking me to be godfather to 
your boy, and I shall have great pleasure in being 
so. Please let me know what his names are to be.... 
Our child will probably be christened on Easter 
Monday, we mean to call her Alice. ^' 

Alice and Reginald Hargreaves named their second 
son Leopold Reginald, but he was always known in the 
family as Rex. The King-fisher wins the day! 

Within a year, Leopold was dead of a brain hemor- 
rhage following convulsions after a fall. A few months 
later, his wife the Duchess of Albany gave birth to a son, 
named Charles Edward. 

Dodgson 's friendship with Prince Leopold's widow 
and her two children. Princess Alice and Prince Charles, 
is discussed in the second part of this paper, which will 
appear in the next issue of this magazine. 

Based on a talk given to the Leiuis Carroll Society (UK) on April 
28, 2000. Extracts from Dodgson 's diaries and letters are the copy- 
right of the Trustees of the C. L. Dodgson Estate, ivho have kindly 
given permission for them to be reproduced in this article. 

' Lewis (Carroll, "The Garden of Live Flow- 
ers" in Through the Looking- Glass, And Wfiat 
Alice Found There (London: Macmillan, 
1872), 36. 

^ Lewis Carroll, "'Alice' on the Stage," The 
Theatre, n.s., 9 (April 1887): 182. 

•* Dodgson, May 17, \H55, Edward Wake-ling, 
ed., iMvis CanoH's Diaries: The Private Jour- 
naLs of Charles I.utwidge Dodgson, 7 

vols, to date (Luton 8c (Clifford, England: 
The Lewis Carroll Society, 1993-). Unless 
otherwise noted, all diary entries are from 
this series. Further reference will only be 
made for dates that are not given in the 
main body of this paper. For unpublished 
entries, the author relies on his copies of 
the originals housed in the British Library. 
Henry Lewis Thompson, Memoir of Henry 
George Liddell, D.D., Dean of Christ Church, 

Oxford (London: John Murray, 1899), 177. 
Dodgson, December 12, 1860, quoted in 
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, The Life and 
Letters of Lewis Cajroll (London: T. Fisher 
Unwin, 1898), 85-86. Collingwood quotes 
a portion of the now missing diaries. 
Dodgson to his siblings, [December 18, 
1860], Morton Cohen, with the assistance 
of Roger Lancelyn Green, The Letters of 


iMuis Cairoll (New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1979), 46. 

Mavis Batey, Alice's Adventures in Oxford 
(London: Pitkin Pictorials, 1980), 22-23, 

Dodgson, March 9, 186.^, Diaries,]7\. 
Ibid., March 10, 1863, 172-73. 
t^arroll, "The Garden of Live Flowers" in 
Looking-Glass, 45. 

Ibid., 'Humpty Dumpt)-," 131-132. 
Batey, Alice's Adventures in Oxford, 22. The 
poster advertising "Talking Fish!!!" describ- 
ed the event as a "Wondrous Phenomena." 
Mavis Batey, The Adventures of Alice: The 
Stoi-y Behind the Stories Leiuis Carroll Told 
(London: Macmillan, 1991). 
Lady Augustu.s Stanley to Dodgson, De- 
cember 18, 1865, Dodgson Family Collec- 
tion. Published here for the first time. 
Thomas Banks Strong, "Mr. Dodgson: 
Lewis Carroll at Oxford," Times (London), 
Januarv^ 27, 1932, 1 1-12. Also collected in 
Morton Cohen, Lewis Carroll: Interviews and 
lierollections (Iowa City: University of Iowa 
Pres.s, 1989), 38. 

"' Lewis Carroll, Symbolic Logic: Part /, Elemen- 
tary, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1896), 
vii. The first edition was published earlier 
in the same year. 

'' Dodgson to Margaret (Aumynghame, April 
7, 1868, Cohen, Letters, 115-16. 

'^ Dodgson [as "Victoria R."] to the Druiy 
sisters, June 22, n.y.. Private Collection. For 
a facsimile of this letter, see Cohen, Letters, 
134-36 n. 2 and 135. 

'^ Cohen, Interviews and Fiecollections, p. xvii. 

-" As it happens, I am descended from Wil- 
liam the Conqueror's half-brother, made 
Bishop Wakeling of Winchester in 1070. 
So, I'm sure the link is, to say the least, 
very distant and very tenuous. 

'-' Anne Clark, The Real Alice (London: Mi- 
chael Joseph, 1981). 

'^'^ Dodgson to Robinson Duckworth, n.d., MS 
Autogr.b.3, f.l04, Bodleian Library, Ox- 

^■"^ Tenniel to Dodgson, March 8, 1865, 

Bodleain Library. Also in Edward Wakeling 
and Morton Cohen, Leivis Carroll and His 

Illustrators (New York: Cornell University 
Press, 2003), 12-14. In the letter, Tenniel 
di.scu.ssed the illustrations in Wonderland. 

'^'^ Charlotte Zeepvat, Prince Leopold, The 
Untold Sloiy ofQiieen Victoria's Youngest Son 
(Stroud [England]: Sutton, 1998), 56-57. 

-■' Ibid., 82-83. 

-*' Dodgson, Photographic Album A(IIl), 
Gernsheim Collection, Harry Ransom 
Humanities Research Center, University' of 
Texas at Austin. 

^' Zeepvat, Prince Leofmld, 90. 

^^ [Dodgson], The Vision of the Three T's 
(Oxford: James Parker, 1873), 9-10. Also 
reprinted in Edward Wakeling, ed., The 
Oxford Pamphlets, Leaflets, and Circulars of 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, The Pamphlets of 
Lewis Carroll (Charlottesville: University 
of Virginia, 1993), 1:85. 

^^ Dodgson to Prince Leopold, January' 31, 
1876, Cohen, L^«m, 241. 

.so pi-jnce Leopold to Dodgson, February 2, 
1876, Cohen, Letters, 241 n. 2. 

■'^' Anne Clark, The Real Alice, 193. 

HIGH Society Days in New York 

August A. Imholtz,Jr 


On Friday morning, October 24, 2003 a small band of 
LCSNA officers and members assembled at the Bryant Li- 
brary, located on — quite appropriately — Paper IVIill Road 
in Roslyn, New York. We had come to the public library, 
the oldest on Long Island in continuous use, in order to 
make a presentation to the Children's Room in honor of 
Stan Marx, foimder of the LCSNA and a longtime sup- 
porter. [An LCSNA meeting was held here at the Bryant in 
October, 1980.— Ed.] 

At about eleven o'clock, Ms. Elizabeth McCloat, one 
of the librarians, welcomed LCSNA President Alan Tan- 
nenbaum, Mrs. Diana Marx (Stan's widow), Janet Jurist, 
Edward Guiliano, David and Mary Schaefer, Edward Wake- 
ling, and me, along with several of Stan's friends from 
the Long Lsland Book Club, of which he was the guiding 

After coffee and refreshments and some words of 
thanks from Ms. McCloat, President Tannenbaum spoke 
briefly about what Stan had meant to LCSNA and what 
he must have meant to the library and to the community 
of Roslyn. Edward Guiliano, who had known Stan in his 
Carrollian capacity longer than anyone in the loom, 
spoke with great affection of his former friend and col- 
league — not an academic colleague but truly a colleague 
as an anima naturaliter philobiblion — and how Stan scarcely 
could have realized back in Princeton in 1974, when the 
LCSNA first took shape, where things — including today's 
donation to the library — would lead. Janet Jurist recalled 

her long association with Stan, through the LCSNA but 
first and foremost through the book club at the Bryant 
Library. David Schaefer shared a few memories of Stan, 
including an early visit to Arthur Houghton to seek advice 
on the question of whether the American Carroll society 
should be independent of its British counterpart. Finally, 
several of Stan's acquaintances from the town of Roslyn 
and I offered our observations. Alan thanked Mary Schae- 
fer for suggesting that a memorial of books be made in 
Stan's honor to the library. We all then trooped down to 
the Children's Room where the gift, a more-than-two-foot 
high statue of the White Rabbit, was placed atop a book- 
case with a selection of the publications of the LCSNA 
and a set oi Alice hook%, all bearing a bookplate from the 
LCSNA commemorating Stan Marx, placed at its feet. We 
paused for a few photographs and then headed back to 
Manhattan for the next activity of the day. 


In conjunction with the Fall 2003 meeting, the Maxine 
Schaefer Memorial Outreach Reading took place on a 
cool Friday afternoon, October 24, at the Dalton School 
on Manhattan's Upper East Side. The school, first called 
the Children's University School, was foimded by progres- 
sive educator Helen Parkhurst in 1919. She originally de- 
veloped her plan for a new kind of educational experience 
at a high school in Dalton, Massachusetts,' from which 
the now famous school in New York City took its name. 
In 1919 she founded her new school in New York and, a 

Above, David Schaejer, August Imholz, and Edward 
Wakeling examine the scrapbook. 

Center, the gift to the children 's room. 

(All photos by Alan Tannenbaum) 

m ■mWM'iMm 

■ Hf WSmfSmmm \mSmmm 

Cindy Walter, Dayna McCausland, and Edward Wakeling in 
front of the Dalton School. 

few years later, expressed her vision of what that school 
embodied: "Let us think of a school as a social laboratory 
where pupils themselves are the experimenters, not the 
victims of an intricate and crystallized system... Let us 
think of it as a place where community conditions prevail 
as they prevail in life itself."- The school is located today at 
108 East 89th Street. 

At two thirty on that cool Friday afternoon, several 
classes of fourth grade boys and girls assembled in the 
library on the tenth floor of the Dalton School — buildings, 
even schools, tend to go straight up in Manhattan. The 
librarian of the middle school, Ms. Roxanne Feldman, 
introduced Alan Tannenbaum, who after a few welcoming 
remarks and expressions of thanks to Ms. Feldman, intro- 
duced Ellie Schaefer-Salins. Ellie told the children about 
the role of her mother, Maxine Schaefer, in the founding 
of the Society, how she shepherded it through the first 
twenty years of its existence as the Society's secretary, and 
how she liked few things more than introducing children, 
like those in the audience, to Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland. 

Patt Griffin-Miller and Andrew Sellon next gave a spir- 
ited dramatic reading of the "Mad Tea-Party" episode in 
chapter seven of the first Alice book. The children, moved 
by the reading and dramatic skills of our two actors, chuck- 
led at the appropriate moments. Following the perfor- 
mance, Andrew began a discussion with the fourth graders 
by asking how many had read the book (a lot had) and 
how many had seen the Disney film (even more). He then 
asked them how they thought Lewis Carroll had come to 
write his most famous book. One child said he must have 
had a dream, which is not all that bad an answer. Andrew 
and Patt explained the actual origin of the story, includ- 
ing its basis on a real child named Alice and her sisters. 
This biographical excursus opened a rapid descent into 
a rabbit hole of questions about Carroll, Alice, and her 

sisters — especially when they died: Since the class had re- 
cently studied E. B. Wliite's fiction and life, they were keen 
on a pre-postmodern approach to a literary text. Other 
questions included the following: Why was the Dormouse 
so tired? (too much sugar in the tea was one answer); 
What is a Hatter and why is he mad? (Edward Wakeling ex- 
plained that the mercury used in the making of hats could 
cause madness); Where is Wonderland? (one child said in 
their imagination); and finally, there was much discussion 
about one's favorite characters in the story. Ms. Feldman 
then brought up Carroll's "The Story of the Three Cats","* 
which Andrew read as a kind of encore. At the conclusion 
of our program, each child received a copy of the Books 
of Wonder edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland "with 
the bookplate commemorating the Maxine Schaefer Chil- 
dren's Outreach Fund. LCSNA members present for the 
afternoon's events included Alan Tannenbaum, David and 
Mary Schaefer, Ellie Schaefer-Salins, Janet Jurist, Cindy 
Watter, Edward Wakeling, Dayna McCausland, and me 
and my wife, Clare Imholtz. 


At ten forty-five the following morning, members and 
guests assembled in the original Berol Room of New York 
University's Fales Library, which, of course, is named for 
Lewis Carroll collector and university benefactor Alfred C. 
Berol (who made his fortune manufacturing pencils), to 
examine a fabulous potpourri of books, ephemera, objets 
d'art, and the like, which would be auctioned later in the 
day for the benefit of the LCSNA. Then at eleven forty-five 
we all strolled through Greenwich Village a few blocks to 
Ennio & Michael's on LaGiiardia Place where we partook 
of a delightful lunch and the sparkling conversations that 
always make an LCSNA meeting such an enjoyable social 
occasion. By one thirty we were back in the Fales, which 
for those of you who have never visited this remarkable 

Above, Joel Birenbaum presides over the auction. 
Center, Andreiif Sellon. 

library, is on the third floor of New York University's Elmer 
Holmes Bobst Library at 70 Washington Square South in 
New York's Greenwich Village. 

President Alan Tannenbaum, after welcoming the 
audience, thanked Marvin Taylor, Director of the Fales 
Library and Special Collections, for hosting our meeting 
and giving us permission in advance to tarry well past the 
traditional closing hours, should it be necessary. Marvin 
then welcomed us for at least the third time to NYU (the 
Society has met here seven previous times) and expressed 
the library's gratitude for the donation to the Fales of the 
LCSNA Archives. I, being the Archives Coordinator, next 
said a few words about them. I read the painfully dn' defi- 
nition of the word "archives" from Sir Hilary Jenkinson's 
bible of archival library science, A Manual of Archive Admin- 
istration^ — a text far drier than even the post-caucus race 
account of Edwin and Morcar — and assured the LCSNA 
members that their archives, now safely preserved at NYU, 
are an exciting record of the first twenty-nine years of a 
vibrant, living literary society. 

Before returning to my chair, I had the sad duty of 
announcing that Clark Smith, husband of Genevieve B. 
Smith, had passed away this year on the fourth day of 
June. Clark, a San Francisco native and a newspaper man 
throughout his life, was a frequent visitor to our meetings. 
He and his journalistic animadversions on our follies will 
be missed by all who had the pleasure of knowing him. 

Edward Wakeling, coeditor with Morton N. Cohen of 
the newly released collection of letters entitled Lewis Car- 
roll and His Illustrators,'' delivered the afternoon's first lec- 
ture, which he titled "Lewis Carroll's Artistic Mind's Eye." 
Edward began by projecting a cavalcade of pictures by the 
illustrators of Dodgson's books: John Tenniel, Henry Holi- 
day, Arthur Frost, Harry Furniss, and Gertrude Thomson. 
Fine as their illustrations are (some would say they are 
"classic") the question arises of "who should claim praise 

for such magnificent illustrative ideas — the artist or the 
author?" Dodgson, Edward argued, had a substantial hand 
in both the subjects and themes for the illustrations. The 
evidence for such a claim derives from three sources: the 
diaries, the illustration plans Dodgson drew up for some of 
his books (particularly those for the A/?V^ books), and the 
letters printed in the newly published collection. These 
letters to his illustrators reveal that "in virtually all cases, 
Dodgson had in his mind's eye exactly what was required 
to illustrate his work." 

Dodgson had, however, initially entertained the pos- 
sibility of illustrating Wonderland h'lmselL Edward cited the 
well-known verdict of John Ruskin on Dodgson's artistic 
talents'' and added the evidence of the diaiy entry of July 
16, 1863, recounting Carroll's visit to Thomas Combe 
with his half-length drawing of Alice drawn on wood to 
be engraved. The arms were "condemned" and Dodgson 
was told he ^'must draw from the life."^ Still undeterred, he 
called on Mr.Jewitt of Camden Town who gave him some 
further hints and seemed to be willing to cut the blocks 
Dodgson had drawn. Over the next few months Dodgson 
associated with the most famous British artists of his day, 
Arthur Hughes and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, inter alia. 
WTiether on the basis of the opinions of two such "experts" 
as Ruskin and Combe, or from conversation with his artist 
friends, Dodgson in the end decided to hire a professional 
illustrator — one John Tenniel. 

Edward pointed out that the story, mentioned by Wil- 
liams and Madan, that Dodgson recommended Mary Bad- 
cock, daughter of Canon Badcock, to Tenniel as the model 
for Alice, is completely impossible because of the dates of 
Tenniel's drawings, as well as the Punch cover of 1864 on 
which the girl who would be Alice appears — some months 
before the supposed Badcock incident.*^ 

The course of Dodgson's own development as a drafts- 
man may, however, merit some further attention. Consider 


Morton Cohen and Edward Wakeling at the Fales 

the illustration made 
when he was thirteen 
for Useful and Instructive 
Poetry:'^ "the proportions 
of the figure look right... 
and there is some use of 
perspective" — altogether 
a not impromising start. 
Some seventeen years 
later when he incorpo- 
rated his own carefully 
drawn illustrations into 
the manuscript of Alice's 
Adventures under Ground 
he not only worked 
hard to get the animals 
as anatomically correct 
as he could, but he also 
learned the art of spac- 
ing the illustrations to 
provide a "visual context 
for the tale." And yet 
throughout his life he 
adopted a rather self-dep- 
recatory view of himself as 

an artist. He once said to Gertrude Thomson, "I can't draw 
in the least myself — that's the first qualification for an Art 
Critic."'" Furniss was the only artist employed by Dodgson 
who mocked Dodgson's view of himself as an artist." 

Quoting passages from many of Dodgson's letters to 
Frost, Thomson and the other artists, Edward continued 
to show in some detail the constant intervention of Dodg- 
son's mind's eye in the work of the artists' hands, espe- 
cially wherever "thick ankles" turned up. His talk provided 
an excellently documented summary of one of the themes 
running through the letters and was beautifully illustrated. 
Forty-two illustrations, in fact! 

Morton N. Cohen, our second speaker of the after- 
noon, began by saying how grateful he was to Edward 
Wakeling for such a lucid lecture and how strongly he 
agreed with Edward about the unjustly maligned artistic 
abilities of Charles L. Dodgson. 

In the proem to his rhetorically masterful lecture, 
titled "Facts and Fictions," Cohen suggested that Dodgson 
reveals himself more in his letters than in his diaries. At 
first this assertion sounds rather counterintuitive but the 
letter writer reveals a great deal about himself in what 
he says and how he says it in a manner we do not find in 
the daily diary entries. The letters do not give us a new 
picture of Dodgson but rather broadly substantiate the at- 
titudes, beliefs, opinions, and even prejudices that we have 
encountered before. Cohen , who quoted about six examples 
from Dodgson's letters to his illustrators, is especially inter- 
ested in those throwaway lines that reveal so much about 
his character. Dodgson's considerate nature, for instance, 
is revealed in the letter to Frost on February 24, 1885, in 
which he declines to criticize Frost's Stuff and Nonsense 
since "The fun turns too exclusively on depicting brutal 


violence, terror, and phys- 
ical pain, and even death, 
none of which are funny 
to me."''"^ 

Cohen then turned 
to another matter al- 
together: the views of 
Dodgson put forth by 
revisionist critics and by 
apologists (referring here 
to the work of Karoline 
Leach, Hugues Lebailly, 
and, as discovered later, 
Edward Wakeling). No 
one owns the whole truth 
about anyone else so each 
biographer must to some 
extent create a fiction. 
The historical works of 
Edward Gibbon and 
Thomas Carlyle, great 
though they be, alas, are 
in the end, fictions. Least 
desirable and persuasive 
are those fictions that 
wander from the facts or attempt to twist facts to say the 
opposite of what they document. Cohen has remained 
silent as these revisionist theories surfaced over the past 
several years for two main reasons: Some of the assertions 
were full of distortions, unworthy of reply, and others 
were contrary to established fact (e.g., that Dodgson used 
children only in order to pursue their mothers). Nothing 
these revisionists declared, he seemed to imply, could be 
further from the truth. 

Cohen then decried those apologists, the novelists 
and critics, who on the other hand say we must look at Vic- 
torian attitudes toward children and once we do that we 
shall see nothing extraordinary about Dodgson's interest 
in little girls. ''^ Clearly not every Oxford don or Anglican 
clergyman of the Victorian period spent a substantial part 
of his life in the company of young female children. 

On the controversial matter of the break between 
Dodgson and the Liddells, Cohen pointed out that before 
the break on or about June 27, 1863, Dodgson had been 
seeing the Liddell girls almost every day, and that the 
break was longer and more serious than the revisionists 
suggest.'^ On June 25 Dodgson took the girls back from 
Nuneham by railway, the first documented case of his 
being alone with the children. He said of this trip, "We 
had tea under the trees at Nuneham, after which the 
rest drove home in the carriage (which met them in the 
park), while Ina, Alice, Edith, and I {mirabile dictul) walked 
down to Abingdon-road station, and so home by railway. 
A pleasant expedition with a very pleasant conclusion."'-"' 
But by his own admission, after that he held aloof from 
the Liddells until December 19, a total of some 174 days, 
or almost twenty-five weeks. Lorina Liddell, as she wrote 
Alice later, told Florence Becker Lennon that Dodgson's 
"manner became too affectionate to you as you grew older 

and that mother spoke to him....""' Here the apologists 
say Dodgson was only displaying paternal interest. 

As for Dodgson 's older female friends, he never wrote 
acrostic poems to them, never made long lists of their 
names, and never walked long miles with them the way 
he did with the young girls. He clearly befriended mature 
females, but not for emotional sustenance, and he never 
loved them. The revisionists count Dodgson's letters to 
matiue women, but they do not say that most of those 
letters are about their children. A letter to Enid Stevens's 
mother was cited asjust one example.'" Likewise, they also 
make much of the female guests at Guildford without 
commenting on the bevy of Dodgson's sisters surrounding 

Finally, there is the infamous scrap of paper from the 
Guildford Muniment Room'-' describing the contents of 
the famous ripped page. Cohen says that he and Philip 
Dodgson Jaques, executor of the Dodgson estate at the 
time, had a good laugh about the assertion by the revision- 
ists that it had been written by Violet Dodgson, Carroll's 
niece.-" Cohen knows exactly who wrote it and promises to 
reveal this information in a forthcoming book or article. 
In the meantime, the information has been deposited for 
safekeeping in an envelope should anything happen to 
him before he has the opportimity to explain this matter 
in print. 

"Facts and fictions intermingle in our lives but fictions 
built on manipulated 'truths,' like those of the Apologists 
and the Revisionists, will crumble into dust," he said. 

A short break preceded our fourth LCSNA auction 
with very spirited bidding under the able and enthusiastic 
direction of Joel Birenbaum. Some $2,400 was raised for 
the society's funds from the books, artifacts, and treasures 
contributed by members. The auction was held in the 
original Berol Room but I fear there may have been only 
a few things that would have interested that discriminat- 
ing collector. We then moved to the Fales gallery to enjoy 
wine and cheese and snacks before returning to the library 
meeting room at about seven o'clock. 

Andrew Sellon, Elizabeth London, and Tim Sheahan 
gave an engrossing and entertaining reading of Andrew's 
play Through the Looking-Glass Darkly, a work in progress, 
about Dodgson's life. It was sort of a Thornton Wilder 
"Our Wonderland" with Dodgson, who has just died, 
flanked by a man and a woman who lead him back through 
significant events of his life. Sellon's Dodgson comments 
on what those key events meant, often in his own words (a 
device also used in Kevin Moore's Crocodiles and Cream but 
richer and more biting) in response to the leading ques- 
tions of his two mysterious guides. The ending will not be 
revealed here. It was a brilliant performance by all but 
especially by Andrew Sellon. 

It was after nine o'clock as we wandered, sated, across 
the Escheresque floor of the library and out onto Washing- 
ton Square. 

' See 

^ Helen Parkhurst, Education on the Dal- 
ton Plan (New York: Dutton, 1922), 

^ In three letters from Carroll to Agnes and 
Amy Hughes, [?1871], in Stuart Dodgson 
Collingwood's The Life and Letters of Lewis 
Carroll (London: Unwin, 1898), 420-23; 
or The Letters ofLeivis Carroll (New York: 
Oxford Universit)' Press, 1979), 1:160-162 

"* Hilary Jenkinson, .4 Alanual of Archive Ad- 
ministration (London: Lund. Humphries, 

•^ Morton N. Cohen and Edward Wakeling, 
Lewis Carroll and His Illustrators: Collabora- 
tions and Correspondence, 1S65-1898 (Ithaca, 
NY: Cornell University Press, 20().S). 

'' (jollingwood, The Life and Letters, 102 

" Dodgson, July 16, 186.3, Edward Wakeling, 
Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The Private journals 
of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Clifford, Eng- 
land: The Lewis Carroll Society, 1997), 

^ Sidney Herbert Williams and Falconer 
Madan, A Handbook of the Literature of the 
Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) (London: 
Milford, 1931), 22. For the Punch Alice 

illustration and the Badcock photograph 
as well as a full critique, see Michael 
Hancher, The Tenniel Illustrations to the 
"Alice" Books (Columbus, Ohio State Press, 
198.5), 22, 101-2. 

^ The illustration is not in Derek Hudson's 
19.54 commercial publication of this work. 

'" Dodgson to Thomson, [n. d.] in "Lewis 
(Carroll: A Sketch by an Artist-Friend," Ger- 
trude Thomson, Gentlexuoman (January 29, 
1898) reprinted in Cohen and Wakeling, 
Leivis Carroll and His Illustrators, 321 . The 
original letter is missing. 

" Dodgson to Furniss, April 24[?], 1885, in 
Cohen and Wakeling, Lewis Carroll and His 
Illustrators, 1 14. 

'- Dodgson to Frost, Februar\' 24, 1885, 
Cx)hen and Wakeling, Leu'is Carroll and His 
Illustrators, 97. 

'■^ Hugues Lebailly, "C. L. Dodgson and the 
Victorian Cult of the CJhild," Carrollian, no. 
4 (Autumn 1999). 

'^ Wakeling, Ij^wis Carroll's Diaries, 4:214-15, 
nn. 227-28. Also see Wakeling, "Mr. Dodg- 
son and the Royal Family" p. 5. 

'•'' Dodgson, June 25, 1863, Wakeling, Lewis 
Carroll's Diaries, 4:213. 

'•' Lorina Skene to Alice Hargreaves, May 2, 
1930, in Edward Wakeling, "Two Letters 

from Lorina to Alice," fabbenuocky 21 , no. 4, 
issue 80 (Autimin 1992): 92. 

' ^ Dodgson to Enid Stevens, February 28, 
1891, in Morton N. Cohen, The Letters of 
Lewis Carroll, 2:825. Enid was born in 1882. 
[To imderstiuid the ambiguity in letter 
counting, sec also March 2, 1891; March 9, 
1891; April 1, 1891; April 5, 1891;.\pril 16, 
1891; April 17, 1891;June 16, 1891; May 5, 
1892; May 27, 1892; June 1, 1892; Novem- 
ber 16; 1892; April 14, 1893; June 6, 1893; 
January 26, 1894, restricting the list to only 
Mrs. Stevens.] 

'** For a prior publication of this criticism, see 
Donald Rackin, review of In the Shadow of 
the Dreamrhild, by Karoline Leach, Victorian 
Studies 43, no. 4 (Summer 2001 ): 652. 

'■' The Dodgson Family Collection of arti- 
facts, family letters and papers, photo- 
graphs, printed matter and childhood 
ephemera was on deposit at the Guildford 
Museinn and later the (iuildford Muni- 
ment Room between 1965 and 1981. The 
archi%es were moved to the Surrey Histor)' 
Centre in Woking in 1998. 

-" Karoline Leach, In the Shadow of the Dream- 
child: A New Understanding of Lewis Carroll 
(London: Peter Owen, 1999), 170-71. 



Still More Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews 

August A. Imholtz Jr. and Clare Imholtz 


We have recently come across two more 
contemporary reviews of Sylvie and Bruno. The 
first appeared in Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly 
as the lead review in the "Literary Memoranda" column for 
April 1890. The second and more blistering, from Godey's 
Magazine of MsLy 1896, is actually part of a broader article, 
entitled "The Art of Intentional Nonsense," which discusses 
not only Sylvie and Bruno but the Alicehooks, Edward Lear, 
and early Carroll imitators such as Anna M. Richards Sr. 
and Charles E. Carryl. The review is signed "Chelifer," 
a pseudonym we have not yet been able to decode. See 
Knight Letters 62, 63, 67, and 71 for the previous reviews of 
the Sylvie and Bruno books located for this series. 

FRANK Leslie's popular monthly: 

VOL. 29, APRIL 1890 

Lewis Carroll's newjuvenile treasure-trove, entitled "Sylvie 
and Bruno" (Macmillan 8c Co.), is a book rich in amazing 
conceits and droll speeches, illustrated with forty-six draw- 
ings by Harry Furniss, which the author justly pronounces 
"wonderful." If this work falls short of the sensational 
success of the same author's "Alice in Wonderland," it 
is only because the latter was absolutely original, unique, 
unapproachable. In "Sylvie and Bruno," Mr. Carroll has 
endeavored to strike out yet another new path, combining 
all sorts of odd ideas, fragments of dialogue, quotations, 
perversions, and dreams, into an eccentric tale of two little 
children who flutter back and forth between fairy-land 
and the world of reality in a charmingly irresponsible fash- 
ion. All through the story there pops up, now and again, 
a kind of crazy Gardener, who chants "in shrill, discordant 
tones" such stanzas as: 

"He thought he saw an Elephant 

That practiced on a fife: 
He looked again, and found it was 

A letter from his wife. 
'At length I realize,' he said, 

'The bitterness of life.'" 

One of the queerest things about the book is a sermonizing 
preface — evidently written on purpose to be skipped — in 

which the author seriously enjoins his young readers never 
to go to any entertainment where they would be afraid to 
die: "If the thought of sudden death," he says, "acquires 
for you, a special horror when imagined as happening in 
a theatre, then be very sure the theatre is harmful for you, 
however harmless it may be for others; and that you are 
incurring a deadly peril in going. Be sure the safest rule 
is that we should not dare to live in any scene in which 
we dare not die." Perhaps some of the mad Gardener's 
remarks have got themselves mixed up with Mr. Carroll's 

godey's magazine: vol. 132, no. 791, may 1, 1896 
[Discussing the role of logical reversal in Carroll's non- 
sense]... In "Sylvie and Bruno" we hear of a little girl so 
light that it is easier carrying her than not; and later there 
is a sort of backward feast, in which one hears of unroast- 
ing the mutton and giving it to the butcher, re-wrapping 
the potatoes and giving them back to the gardener to bury; 
and there is the alligator that walks up its own tail and 
across its own forehead and down its own nose. If there 
were more of these incidents "Sylvie and Bruno" would 
be another success instead of a horrible nondescript with 
a moralizing, egotistical preface in extremely bad taste, a 
milk-and-water love story unintelligible to children and 
deadly dull for their elders, and a tormenting in-mixture 
of puerility, which must surely be dull for children of any 
age. Herein, too, Carroll unloads quantities of ghastly and 
typical British humor, a veritable pun-pudding fairly reek- 
ing with italics. It is fortunately relieved from utter ruin by 
the immortal "Gardener's Song," and a few other traces of 
pure Carrollesque. 



Matthew Demakos 

"But 'glory' doesn't mean 'a nice knock-down argument, '"Alice objected. 

"When I use a word, " Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, "it means just 

what I choose it to mean — neither more nor less. 

— Through the Looking-Glass 


Twenty-five years ago the Lewis Carroll Society held a sym- 
posium on the authenticity of "The Wasp in a Wig," an 
excised episode from Through the Looking-Glass. Sotheby's 
had auctioned the galley sheets to the episode four years 
before and The Sunday Telegraph^ was the first to have 
published the piece in full, eight months prior to the sym- 
posium. Many of the contributors questioned the authen- 
ticity of the sheets and the handwritten markings to omit 
the section, some declaring the piece a mere forgery. The 
purpose of this paper is to examine the criticisms afresh, 
taking advantage of the passing years, new technology, 
and, especially, two subsequently discovered documents. 

The first evidence of the episode came from Stuart 
Dodgson Collingwood, whose biography of his uncle. The 
Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (1899), contained a letter 
from John Tenniel, dated June 1, 1870: 

I think that where the jump occurs in the Railway 
scene you might very well make Alice lay hold 
of the Goat's beard as being the object nearest to 
her hand — instead of the old lady's hair. The jerk 
would naturally throw them together. 

Don't think me brutal, but I am bound to say 
that the 'wasp' chapter doesn't interest me in the 
least, + I can't see my way to a picture. If you want 
to shorten the book, I can't help thinking — with all 
submission — that there is your opportunity. 

In an agony of haste [.]' 
Tenniel may have been reminded of Carroll's desire to 
shorten the book by remembering his previous thoughts 
about the railway scene, as indicated in a letter dated a 
couple of months before: 

I would infinitely rather give no opinion as to what 
would be best left out of the book, but since you 
put the question point-blank, I am bound to say, 
supposing excision somewhere to be absolutely 
necessary, that the Railway scene never did strike 
me as being very strong, and that I think it might 
be sacrificed without much repining; besides, there 
is no subject down in illustration of it in the con- 
densed list. 

Please let me know to what extent you have 
used, or intend using, the pruning-knife, my great 
fear is that all this indecision and revision will inter- 
fere fatally with the progress of the book.^ 

Since Tenniel's letter linked the two episodes, and 
the illustrations following the railway scene were of insects 
like the Wasp — the Rocking-Horse-fly, the Snap-Dragon-fly 
and the Bread-and-butter-fly — scholars were bound to as- 
sume they were in close proximity. In 1947 Roger Lance- 
lyn Green wrote in The Story of Lewis Carroll: 

and the "wasp" chapter was left out — (how one 
wonders what it was about, and how one envies 
Tenniel who was perhaps the only person who ever 
read it!) — which is perhaps why Alice takes such a 
very short time in getting all the way to the Fourth 
Square, though to be sure a pawn can jump over a 
whole square in its first move."* 

In 1952, Alexander Taylor in The White Knight: A Study 
of C. L. Dodgson also suggested the episode came in the 
same place: "Apparently Dodgson meant her to go down 
among the insects, for Alice decided to go down the other 
way, which would take her towards them. But at this point 
Tenniel rebelled and refused to draw a wasp wearing a 
wig." Taylor also furthered a suggestion made by Collin- 
gwood, concluding that an insect so clad "in view of the 
recent Church trials, was surely not entirely without inter- 
est.""^ And two years later in 1954, Derek Hudson declared 
Collingwood's inkling a fact, writing: "Tenniel played a 
part in shaping the text as well as the illustrations, for it 
was by his advice that a projected chapter introducing a 
wasp in the character of a judge or barrister was omitted, 
and that Alice in the railway carriage was made to catch 
at the goat's beard which 'seemed to melt away as she 
touched it.'"'' Likewise, Selw\'n Goodacre, in a suppressed 
paper written before the galleys were announced for auc- 
tion, surmised that the wasp was one of the looking-glass 
insects in chapter three." Lastly, and quite oddly enough, 
Rodney Engen writing in 1991, despite the publication of 
the gallevs, believed the railway episode "continued with 
what is now called the 'Wasp in the Wig' passage."** 

Yet, the supposed forger of "Wasp" shunned the intu- 
ition of at least two scholars, making three decisions that 
would later prove clairvoyant. First, he decided not to make 
his forgery a full chapter. Second, he decided to place his 
Wasp away from the railway scene and the subsequent in- 
sects. Last, he decided to link the section with the White 
Knight chapter. Naturally, this puzzled the scholars at the 
symposium.-' Why would Carroll place an aged wasp after 
an aged knight and a song about an aged (aged) man? Ra- 



phael Shaberman shrugged "The 
author of the 'Wasp' chapter seems 
to have accepted whole-heartedly 
Oscar Wilde's dictum that 'noth- 
ing succeeds like excess' — a dictum 
that I think would have been deci- 
sively rejected by Lewis Carroll."'" 

Unbeknownst to these panel- 
ists, however, there were at least 
two documents that supported the 
three "clairvoyant" points above. In 
1992, Edward Wakeling published 
"The Illustration Plan for Through 
the Looking-Glass" in Jabberwocky, an 
article detailing and reproducing 
a document he found a few years 
earlier in the Christ Church ar- 
chives." In the congested scribble 
of this two-page plan (right), below 
the illustrations named "Battle of 
2 knights," "Knight falling" and 
"Knight singing," the single word 
"Wasp" appears crossed out, and 
surrounded by "Knight in ditch" 
and "Old man on gate." 

The other document — repro- 
duced here for the first time — also 
indicates the episode's location. 
The Houghton Library at Harvard 
University houses many rare Car- 
rollian items, such as the early 
drafts with emendations of the pre- 
liminary pages to Looking-Glass.^ - 
On the table of contents page (re- 
produced on page 18), beneath the 
chapters titled "The Lion and the 
Unicorn," and "Check!" — an early 
title for the Knight chapter — ap- 
pears a chapter without a title, a 

perfect and absolute blank. This is followed by "Queen 
Alice" and "Waking." Though having no mention of a 
wasp, the document, without the aid of the illustration 
plan, supports the supposed forger's placement of the 
"thirteenth" chapter. 

With this time-line of events, a concept developed by 
Mark Israel,''^ the suggestion of a forgery becomes noth- 
ing more than a conspiracy theory, smacked with insipid 
improbabilities. Though not the "glory" of the scornful 
Humpty Dumpty in his epigram, these subsequent finds 
do force present-day naysayers to continually adjust their 
story. Certainly, a forger with knowledge of the contents 
page alone would have headed off his masterpiece with 
"Chapter X" or, with knowledge of the illustration plan 
alone, "Chapter IX." But if he was familiar with both docu- 
ments — a concept to excite only a conspiracy theorist — the 
globetrotting forger did the next best thing and avoided 
the issue. Of course, the forger could have been familiar 
with some extant document depicting certain facts about 
the episode. However, in almost thirty years of Lewis Car- 


3 x£ ^.^ y*^ ^2_ 'y^. // 

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— ___ ia/ f * ,'^ 

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Leuns Carroll, The Illuslralion Plan /or Through the l.ooking-Glass. Black and viokt ink on paper. 

roll studies since the auction of the galleys, no documents 
have been found to expose the galleys as a mere forgery. 
That may certainly be the best practical argument for 
authenticity. If the forger had some unknown piece of 
Carrolliana, what are the odds that it would 7^// with subse- 
quent finds, and why hasn't it been up for auction? Surely, 
a forger would only concern himself with the present, 
careless of what might be found several years hence. But to 
date, nothing has discredited the galleys. 

Alas, the questioning of the galleys to "The Wasp in 
a Wig" continues. As recently as 1998, Hugh Haughton, 
creating notes for the Penguin Classics edition of the Alice 
stories, warned that "The authenticity of the 'Wasp in a 
Wig' episode is questionable,"'^ directing readers to the 
special edition oi Jabberwocky which detailed the discus- 
sion of the Wasp Symposium. No mention is made of the 
subsequent discovery of the illustration plan, which alone 
challenged the best criticisms. Was it not made a slippery 
point in 1992? 

--ty o- 

i:;::^ j-»--_2_, ^■^t 





/3 S 








Christ Church, Oxford. 


Some arguments against the episode, aging with a respect- 
able grayish color, have likely resonated with some long- 
time Carroll enthusiasts. This section — though somewhat 
needlessly in the present author's opinion — will present 
them and dismiss them, but not without a favorable twist 
towards the end. 

One of the most persistent complaints at the Wasp 
Symposium was that the newly discovered episode seemed 
too reminiscent of other episodes in Looking-Glass and 
Wonderland. To give the reader a fair chance to analyze 
the strength of these accusations, they are presented 
in the sidebar (see pages 20 and 21), along with others 
found outside the symposiimi. Decidedly, six of the ten 
are dismissible occurrences — the locks, the English, the 
rhyme, the dear, the treacle, and the bad hair day — and 
the remaining four are no stronger than other connec- 
tions readers have made between certain parts of the Alice 
books. In the Knight chapter alone (a forced limitation 
as a matter of demonstration), many similar connections 
can be made. For example, Carroll's use of random words 

humorously describing a pudding 
includes the word "sealing-wax," a 
word prominent in another seem- 
ingly miscellaneous list, the Wal- 
rus's "Of shoes — and ships — and 
sealing-wax...." Speaking of which, 
the Walrus's poem and the Knight's 
song both have lines in them about 
bodies getting fatter and faces turn- 
ing blue — "Turning a little blue ..." 
and "Until his face was blue...."''' 
"The Aged Aged Man" also has a 
thematic structure comparable to 
"Father William""' (albeit the first 
version of the White Knight's song 
was written before "Father Wil- 
liam"). Janis Lull, in her essay "The 
Appliances of Art," even makes 
a connection between the many 
items on the Knight's steed and 
other parts of the Alice books.'" In 
his Definitive Edition, Gardner anno- 
tates only the last connection, the 
others being, like the connections 
made from "Wasp," too tedious to 

It has been suggested that Car- 
roll appropriated some material 
from "W^asp" in other chapters."^ 
This is doubtful. No phrases be- 
yond those of cliches are reused, 
and the concepts, like Humpty 
Dumpty's comment on Alice's face, 
are decidedly from a different per- 
spective. It is perhaps better to ac- 
knowledge that Carroll dwelled on 
certain things, as many artists do, 
and had a certain stock of comic 
devices. He obviously dwelled on 
pigs and fatness and indeed fat pigs that could not fly or 
jump. See Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; Through the Look- 
ing-Glass; The Hunting of the Snark; Sylvie and Bruno; Sylvie 
and Bruno Concluded; Symbolic Logic, Part I; and Symbolic 
Logic, Part IL^^ 

Several other issues were raised during the panel dis- 
cussion. Selw)'n Goodacre voiced his concern with the line 
"look so nice / As they had ventured to expect...", indicat- 
ing that it should read "They said I did not look as nice / 
As they had ventured to expect."-" However, Webster's Dic- 
tionary of English Usage states that "up until about a century 
ago [that is, 1872], 50 ... a.9was the regular form in nega- 
tive statements."-^' Carroll even used the negative "so ... as" 
construction in two incidences in Wonderland and two in 

"at least not so mad as it was in March." 

"you needn't be so proud as all that." 

"They don't keep this room so tidy as the other...." 

"if he didn't eat so many as the Walrus. '"-^^ 


-- 2// 

— a/3 



No "as ... as" constructions 
in the negative context in 
Carroll's works have been 

Goodacre also alleged 
that the Wasp's impromptu 
poem contains "lines that 
did not scan."^"^ In fact, 
the scansion is flawless. It 
could be argued, however, 
that the exact scanning is 
the cause for concern. In a 
poem of this length, Car- 
roll often used trochaic 
substitutions on the first 
foot, augmenting an iambic 
line from -/-/-/-/ to 
/^^/»/_./. The lack 
of this mature poetical de- 
vice, along with the simple 
stanza form chosen — four 
lines of four feet each — im- 
bues the poem with sing- 
song, a temperament best 
avoided. Since Carroll 
shunned trochaic substitu- 
tions in other poems of 
similar length — "The Wil- 
low Tree" (1859), Humpty 
Dumpty's "A Message to 
the Fish" (1871), "Matilda 
Jane" (1893)^4_the issue 
turns into nothing more 
than pedantic padding. 

Later in the discussion, 
Veronica Hickie cringed, "I just could not accept that it 
came after the perfect encounter of Alice with the White 
Knight.... those two old characters together seemed quite 
wrong."-'^ But Carroll's image of the White Knight, a char- 
acter invented to recite the poem about an "Aged Aged" 
gate-sitter, was not originally old. He advised Tenniel that 
"The White Knight must not have whiskers; he must not 
be made to look old."^^ The very deletion of the Wasp may 
have convinced Carroll to allow Tenniel to portray the 
knight in his autumn years. 

Some members of the panel asserted subjective points 
to challenge the authenticity of the "Wasp" galleys. These 
are perhaps best left unexplored, as can be demonstrated 
by one point voiced by P. F. Walker and another written by 
Martin Gardner in the first book publication of the epi- 
sode. Both commentators singled out the Wasp's remark 

about Alice's eyes: "Then your eyes they're too much 

in front, no doubt. One would have done as well as two, 

if you must have them so close "^' Walker expressed 

a raucous concern: "what on earth do I do with that 'no 
doubt'?" On the line "One would have done as well as 
two...", the panelist added "Carroll was never as obscure 
as that — ever." On the other hand, Gardner, defending 
the episode against charges of forgery, singled out this dia- 




r. rr««-.<M.A8a-eBiiTAiN , . . . i 




V. i*W«lQ-B*©ftW*lW« 









The early draft of the Table of Contents forThrou^h the Looking-Glass. Pencil and black 
and violet ink corrections on paper, 7.5 x 5 in. Houghton Library, Harvard University. 

log, branding it "pure 

After the comple- 
tion of the nine-mem- 
ber panel discussion, 
one member (Denis 
Crutch) simply intro- 
duced the topic, two 
members (Michael Or- 
love and Veronica Hick- 
ie) argued for caution, 
heading a bit toward au- 
thenticity, three (Raph- 
ael Shaberman, P. F. 
Walker, and Peter Shaw) 
argued for forgery, and 
two (Anne Clark and 
Edward Wakeling) ar- 
gued for genuineness. 
The panel would have 
to wait to hear Selwyn 
Goodacre's conclusion. 
In a paper deliv- 
ered at the symposium 
entitled "Considera- 
tions of Physical Fac- 
tors," Goodacre raised 
several issues, both for 
and against authentic- 
ity. Limiting ourselves 
to the latter, first, he 
stated that the "a" spell- 
ing of "gray" — seen in 
the galleys — "did not 
come in until about 
1889, and even then was not used in the 1897 Alice texts. '"^-^ 
The CD-ROM version of The Oxford English Dictionary has 
numerous examples of "gray", so spelled, by British writers. 
Keeping with the years 1869 and 1870, the spelling occurs 
in John Phillips' Vesuvius, "ejected blocks of gray lava on 
Somma"; in Dickens' Edtoin Drood, "with a buff waistcoat 
and gray trousers"; and Ruskin's Queen of the Air, "Under 
gray sky, unveined by vermilion or by gold."'^" Carroll, who 
owned all three of these books,''' even owned up to the 
spelling himself in three poems in Phantasmagoria (1869), 
his book nearest the publication of Looking-Glass, and in 
one poem in Rhyme? and Reason? (1883). More directly, 
Carroll himself even hand-printed the "a" spelling in the 
handwritten "Father William" version in Alice's Adventures 
under Ground ( 1 863) .'- 

Next Goodacre found the purple handwriting on 
the galleys ("omit to middle of slip 68-") to be suspect.-^^ 
This is subjective and the present author admittedly is not 
an expert in the field of graphology. However, it can be 
pointed out that none of the words nor the individual 
letters incite concern. Instead of being "forced and ugly," 
each letter or word can be matched in type to a known 
Carroll formation. The following table gives the closest 

match found for some of the letters in the phrase, the last 
being from galley 68: 






The t in omit 



[Apr. 12, 1878] 


The t in omit 



[? Feb. 1868] 










Mar. 25, 1881 




Private Coll. 

Dec. 23, 1897 



Private Coll. 

Aug. 28, 1892 

S in Slip 



Mar. 25, 1881 


S in Slip 


Private Coll. 

Sep. 7, 1892 

S in Slip 


Private Coll. 

Aug. 28, 1992 






6 in 68 





O in Omit 


Private Coll. 

Oct. 31, 1892 

Though the self-crossed "t," the downward scooping link- 
ing of the "o" and "f ' in "of," and the round top-edge of 
the "6," are somewhat rarer than other forms, they were 
each found, and represented in the chart, showing that 
Carroll did execute them from time to time. The upright 
"S" in "Slip" is more characteristic, admittedly, of Carroll's 
hand-printing than of his cursive writing, and can be 
found ubiquitously in his handwritten Under Ground manu- 
script. The downward angle of the entire phrase perhaps 
explains the uprightness of the letter, though its three- 
sided-diamond shaped bottom half is entirely Carrollian. 

"There are seven changes of punctuation," Goodacre 
continued, directing his attention to the handwritten cor- 
rections. "Two are the addition of a comma before speech: 
This is very un-Carroll like; in the People's Edition correc- 
tions, and the 1897 corrections, he went to considerable 
pains to remove such commas, they are never added. "^"^ 
Goodacre is only partly correct. The removals he mentions 
are probably of commas before quotation marks where 
quotations do not appear previously in the sentence and 
where the phrase immediately before the quotation con- 
tains the speech indicator without an offsetting comma- 
inserted phrase. '^"^ In "Wasp," therefore, Carroll only made 
one such correction, not two: 

Alice began with a little scream of laughing 
[laughter], which she turned into a cough as well 
as she could : at [could. At] last she managed to say 
gravely[,] "I can bite anything I want."^'' 
Several facts diminish the point gready. First, that 
one correction probably stands against the rule because 
Carroll split one sentence into two. As can be seen above, 
and even more so on the facsimile of the galleys, Carroll 
could have easily missed his previous handwritten edit or 
made it subsequent to the insertion of the comma, forget- 
ting to consider the comma once again. Second, Carroll's 
decision to excise these commas was made in 1897, a full 
thirty-two years after Wonderland. Third, the first editions 
of Wonderland and Looking-Glass are inconsistent in this 
regard as well as his handwritten Under Ground, making 
the inconsistent "Wasp" galleys — Carroll misses at least 
two places to splice in commas similarly^" — completely 
inconsistent as well, and therefore completely consistent 
with Carroll's work. Fourth, Carroll showed carelessness 

even in 1897, only beginning such corrections on page 
30 of Wonderland, missing somewhere between eight and 
thirteen previous examples. If he felt so strongly about 
this decision, it seems to have been a revelation midway 
through the changes in 1897, and if he went to "consider- 
able pains," he would have reviewed the previous pages. In 
matter of fact, in Looking-Glass he only makes three such 
deletions, missing a total of twenty-two before the first.'** 

This is not a rebuke of Selwyn Goodacre: He included 
many pro-authentic comments and, perhaps sensing some 
weaknesses in the points above, concluded: "that the 
proofs are genuine," though reserving some criticisms 
about the handwritten corrections.^-' In truth, the only 
real reason these galleys have been so scrutinized at all 
is that they were sold anonymously and lack provenance. 
However, many valuable items are auctioned every year 
with anonymous owners for myriad reasons. On the other 
hand, the lack of provenance is of some serious concern; 
the auction catalogue stated, "The Proofs were bought at 
the sale of the author's furniture, personal effects, and 
library, Oxford, 1898, and are apparently unrecorded 
and unpublished."^" Something is amiss. The facsimile of 
the auction catalog with handwritten prices by a Carroll 
relative does not indicate its sale, and for those items not 
described, the bids hardly cover the value of such a choice 
item as the "Wasp" galleys. Possibly the "gentleman" sell- 
ing the item innocently misrepresented a family stor)' and 
the item could have been bought before the first item was 
brought to the block. Jeffrey Stern documented such pre- 
auction sales, writing in Leivis Carroll, Bibliophile: "More- 
over, not only were papers destroyed, but much was sold 
largely without record even prior to the auction.... Large 
quantities of Carroll's mantxscript mathematical papers 
were also sold direct (presumably via Wilfred) to Heniy T. 
Gerrans, fellow of Worcester College (now in the Parrish 
Collection)."^' Nonetheless, the diminished provenance 
does not itself imply forgery. 

Curiously, once placed in a proper historical context, 
many of the suspicions above actually authenticate the 
galleys (a twist was promised). The claims of repetition in 
"Wasp" especially forge a double-edged sword, supporting 
authenticity via a certain Carrollian habit — the weaker 
examples becoming stylistic flares and the stronger ones 
habitual preoccupations. The "gray" spelling validates the 
document through common sense; a forger would rather 
avoid skepticism than invite literary pedantry on Victorian 
spelling habits. Likewise, why incite brows to knit over the 
appearance of the hand-printed capital "S" amidst cursive 
writing, though perfectly ubiquitous in Under Ground, 
when the cursive version must have been as easily avail- 
able as the other letters rendered? Similar arguments can 
be drawn for the "comma-before-speech" rule, the "so ... 
as" rule, and poetic scansion rules, concepts that buzz with 
genuineness more than sting with cautiousness. 


To understand how Looking-Glass once couched the 
"Wasp" galleys, it is best to understand some preliminary 
points, mostly drawn from the two documents presented 



Several scholars have claimed that the "Wasp" ejnsode contains many borrowings from other episodes in the Alice 
books, and hence may be a forgery. Here, that you may judge the strength of their argument, are all of their sug- 
' comparisons. 

"In my youth," said the sage, as he shook his grey locks, 
"I kept all my limbs very supple . . ."' 

When I was young, my ringlets waved 
And curled and crinkled on my head. 

"Not with a mouth as small as that," the Wasp persisted. "If 
you was a-fighting, now — could you get hold of the other one 
by the back of the neck?" 

"I'm afraid not," said Alice. 

"Well, that's because your jaws are too short," the Wasp went 
on: "but the top of your head is nice and round." He took off 
his own wig as he spoke, and stretched out one claw towards 
Alice, as if he wished to do the same for her, but she kept out 
of reach, and would not take the hint. So he went on with his 

"Then, your eyes — they're too much in front, no doubt. 
One would have done as well as two, if you must have them so 
close — " 

"The face is what one goes by, generally," Alice remarked in 
a thoughtful tone. 

"That's just what I complain of," said Humpty Dumpty. "Your 

face is that same as everybody has the two eyes, so " 

(marking their places in the air with his thumb) "nose in the 
middle, mouth under. It's always the same. Now if you had the 

two eyes on the same side of the nose, for instance or the 

mouth at the top that would be some help."'^ 

"En-gulph-ed," Alice repeated, dividing the word in syl- 

"There's no such word in the language!" said the Wasp. 
"It's in the newspaper, though," Alice said a little timidly. 

They said it did not fit, and so 
It made me look extremely plain: 

But what was I to do, you know? 
My ringlets would not grow again. 

"She's all right again now," said the Red Queen. "Do you 
know Languages? What's the French for fiddle-de-dee?" 
"Fiddle-de-dee's not EngUsh," Alice replied gravely. 
"Who ever said it was?" said the Red Queen. ^ 

I said to him, I said it plain, 

'Then you must wake them up again. 

"In coming back,'' Alice went on reading, ''they found a lake 
of treacle. The banks of the lake were blue and white, and looked like 
china. While coming back, they had a sad accident: two of their party 
were engulphed — " 

"They lived on treacle," said the Dormouse, after thinking a 
minute or two.... 

The Dormouse again took a minute or two to think about it, 
and then said, "It was a treacle-well."... 

"Treacle," said the Dormouse, without considering at all this 

'You can draw water out of a water-well," said the Hatter; "so 
I should think you could draw treacle out of a treacle-well — eh, 


in the first section: the illustration plan and the early draft 
of the table of contents. 

The illustration plan,''^ the only other document 
known to directly refer to the missing character, written 
in black and violet ink, appears as a scribbled mess on the 
inside of a single folded sheet of paper. The reman nu- 
merals for the chapter numbers, being squeezed in, and 
the horizontal black lines separating the chapters, being 
diverted around the text, were obviously added after the ti- 
tles Carroll had given the illustrations. These observations 
and other minute details suggest that Carroll created the 
document with the illustration titles first, followed by the 
page numbers, the chapter lines, the chapter numbers, 
and the illustration numbers. The other elements, such 

as the sizes of the illustrations, were likely added intermit- 

At one time, evidenced by the switching of ink colors, 
the plan ended with the following: 

VIII. Battle of 2 knights. 162 


37 Knight falling (Qu: more ?) 170 

38 Knight singing. 




And that is why they do it, dear, 
Because I wear a yellow wig. 

We are but older children, dear. 
Who fret to find our bedtime near.*' 

"It isn't that kind," Alice hastily explained. "It's to comb hair 
with — your wig's so very rough, you know." 

"The brush has got entangled in it!" the Queen said with a 
sigh. "And I lost the comb yesterday." 

Alice carefully released the brush, and did her best to get 
the hair into order. "Come, you look rather better now!" she 
said, after altering most of the pins.^ 

Alice did not like having so many personal remarks made 
on her, and as the Wasp had quite recovered his spirits, and was 
getting very talkative, she thought she might safely leave him. "I 
think I must be going on now," she said. "Good-bye." 

"Good-bye, and thank-ye," said the Wasp, and Alice tripped 
down the hill again, quite pleased that she had gone back and 
given a few minutes to making the poor old creature comfort- 


"Of course I'll wait," said Alice: "and thank you very much for 
coming so far and for the song 1 liked it very much." 

"I hope so," the Knight said doubtfully: "but you didn't cry 
so much as I thought you would." 

So they shook hands, and then the Knight rode slowly away 
into the forest. "It won't take long to see him off, 1 expect," 
Alice said to herself, as she stood watching him.... 

"I hope it encouraged him," she said, as she turned to run 
down the hill: "and now for the last brook, and to be a Queen! 
How grand it sounds!"^ 

she heard a deep sigh, which seemed to come from the wood 
behind her. 

"There's somebody very unhappy there," she thought, look- 
ing anxiously back to see what was the matter. Something like 
a very old man (only that his face was more like a wasp) was 
sitting on the ground, leaning against a tree, all huddled up 
together, and shivering as if he were very cold. 


The little voice sighed deeply: it was z;ery unhappy, evidently, 
and Alice would have said something pitying to comfort it, "if 
it would only sigh like other people!" she thovight. But this was 
such a wonderfully small sigh, that she wouldn't have heard it 
at all, if it hadn't come quite close to her ear. The consequence 
of this was that it tickled her ear very much, and quite took off 
her thoughts from the unhappiness of the poor little creature. 
"I know you are a friend, " the little voice went on; "a dear friend, 
and an old friend. And yon won't hurl nie, though I (im an insect." 


Something like a very old man (only that his face was more 
like a wasp) was sitting on the ground, leaning against a tree, all 
huddled up together, and shivering as if he were very cold.... 

"They jokes at one. And they worrits one. And then I gets 

a very old frog, who was sitting under a tree, got up and hob- 
bled slowly towards her: he was dressed in bright yellow, and 
had enormous boots on.... 

"I speaks English, doesn't I?" the frog went on.... 

"Wexes it, you know."'" 


This termination with a lone Wasp illustiation, lacking 
the description of the other illustrations, asserts not only 
that Carroll was at this stage in his layout, but that, lack- 
ing page and illustration number, and especially a chapter 
number, he was at an impasse in his destined masterpiece. 
He informed Tenniel near the beginning of April 1870 
that the book seemed too long, with the illustrator giving 
his reluctant opinion about the railway scene, and in June, 
his damnation of "W'asp.''^^ jt took Carroll at least three 
months to exterminate the insect with his violet ink (first 
used in October of that year) ''' and another two to com- 
plete the book. 

Likely created around April 1870, the early draft of 
the table of contents page for Looking-Glass,^^' a rather 

less complicated document, contains Carroll's projected 
chapter titles. Ignoring his handwritten corrections for the 
moment, the typeset matter, in the same style as the first 
edition, ended with the following: 


IX. check! 




In combination with the illustration plan, which only 
whispered an impasse, this trumpets it. Alone, however, 
the document is ambiguous. Carroll may have created it 
around the middle of April 1870 when he was designing 
the sample title pages,''' with one of which the document 
is catalogued. If so — and with Tenniel's "Wasp" letter more 
than a month hence — the document may only represent 
an outline with Carroll knowing full well that whatever 
episode he developed in the empty "X" chapter — a wasp, 
a harlequin, or Little Jack Horner — it would be followed 
by "Queen Alice," an obvious direction for his novel, and 
"Waking," the even more obvious conclusion. On the 
other hand, the document may have been created when 
the book was nearly complete and when he was consider- 
ing Wasp's deletion. Carroll's initial violet markings — with- 
out the final scribbled out chapter numbers — shows, four 
months after Tenniel's letter, that he still had an inclina- 
tion to retain at least some chapter in that location. 

The document was first described in A Handbook of 
the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson (1931),''" oddly listing 
what the chapters had become — an obvious fact — instead 
of their more intriguing history. The authors implied that 
Carroll had eleven chapters and that the "Waking" chap- 
ter was split to make the twelve known today. To be more 
exact, the typesetting shows Carroll initially had twelve 
chapters and, to retain that number, the amalgamation of 
two early chapters triggered the division of a later chapter. 
Likewise, the deletion of "Wasp," illustrated with a scrib- 
bling out of the final roman numerals, triggered a further 
split in the later chapters, as known by the published edi- 
tion. In short, the document thrice over proves an affinity 
for the number twelve, betraying the eleven-chapter plan 
as an uneasy interim. 

The illustration plan and Harvard's contents page 
prove that Tenniel's use of the word "chapter" for the 
"Wasp" episode was more literal than once perceived. 
The horizontal line on the illustration plan separating 
the Wasp and the blank space in the contents page clearly 
suggest that the insect led off a new chapter, possibly later 
titled "Worrity! Worrity!" or "The Wasp in a Wig." It should 
be noted that Collingwood, who had at least one other 
letter''^ on the issue, did not object to Tenniel's term. But 
indeed, as illustrated later, it may have been only a short 
episode of nine pages and not some full chapter that Ten- 
niel condemned. 

If the episode opened a new chapter, the lack of a 
chapter title, expected on the first discarded galley page, 
deserves explanation. The truth is printers did not as a mat- 
ter of rule begin new chapters on fresh galley sheets,''" and 
the title, simply appearing anywhere in the middle of the 
long page, could have easily been cut away. It most likely 
appeared with its number above the paragraph beginning 
with Alice's words: "I hope it encouraged him..." — a con- 
cept in accordance with Carroll's loose chapter breaking 
throughout the novel. Since the opening of the Knight 
chapter itself refers to the previous chapter's characters, 
the Lion and the Unicorn, the reference Alice makes to 
the Knight, a mere "him," is not problematic. Also, her 

sentence abruptly changes topics, becoming girlish and 
flighty: "and now for the last brook, and to be a Queen!" 
Whatever the strength of this proposition, the illustration 
plan and the contents page certainly indicate a new chap- 
ter, as did Tenniel's letter, and it is highly unlikely that Car- 
roll would have written a thirty-eight-page chapter when 
the previous chapters did not exceed twenty-five pages. 

The illustration plan indicates some concern with 
keeping the chapters a uniform length. For the first three 
chapters, Carroll indicates the number of pages, circling 
the numbers: "24 ... 20 ... 20." For the first chapter, Car- 
roll even scopes out the intervals between illustrations: "4 
... 6... 1 ... 2 ... 3." Since both sets of numbers are written 
in violet ink and the original page numbers were in black 
ink, it indicates a later concern. As it turns out, before the 
twenty-eight-page "It's My Own Invention," the chapters' 
average length was a little more than twenty-two pages, 
with a maximum variation of no more than three. This 
is relatively uniform. The chapters in Wonderland aver- 
age sixteen pages with a maximum variation of two, if the 
shortest chapter of twelve pages is excluded. On the other 
hand, the early draft of the contents page shows that the 
present "Wool and Water" chapter was once two separate 
chapters (a hint of which may appear on the illustration 
plan as a short line after the second of the four illustra- 
tions). They were likely separated with the paragraph 
beginning "She looked at the Queen, who seemed to have 
suddenly wrapped herself up in wool,""'' and thus, eleven 
pages each. However, the plan does show that the chapters 
may have originally been longer, and in the end, Carroll 
did combine them, showing some uneasiness about their 
brevity. Lastly, the diagonal lines and their colors realign- 
ing the chapter numbers indicate that Carroll created the 
one chapter that became "Wool and Water" before the 
Wasp's deletion. 

The two documents negate the idea that Carroll 
lengthened the Knight chapter after excising the Wasp 
or that the same chapter concluded with the episode, 
making the chapter a long thirty-eight pages. On the il- 
lustration plan, Carroll slated in black ink the illustration 
for the "Knight singing" for page 179. After the deletion 
of the Wasp, Carroll slated in violet ink the illustration 
of the "Old man on gate," the very same scene, for page 
179. During the Wasp Symposium in 1978, Denis Crutch 
surmised that the Knight's song essentially took the place 
of "Wasp."'"'^ The illustration plan, with "Knight singing" 
before "Wasp," makes this highly unlikely. Also, Carroll ad- 
mitted that his "character of the White Knight was meant 
to suit the speaker in the poem,"''^ proving the song's pri- 
macy in conception over that of the whole of the chapter. 

Though there are, no doubt, many scenarios to ex- 
plain how Looking-Glass once couched the "Wasp" galleys, 
two will be explained here, one simple and one a bit more 
complicated. The simpler explanation is that the nine-page 
episode was a complete chapter, supported by the short 
"Living Backwards" and "Scented Rushes," or a mere nine- 
page sketch to be developed at a later time. The slightly 
more complicated scenario explains away the anomalous 


nine pages along with the textual emendations that decid- 
edly do not lengthen nor strengthen the episode. Since 
the previous chapters averaged from twenty to twenty-five 
pages, the "Wasp" galleys may have only been the first half 
of a fuller chapter. In this scenario, once confronted with 
the character's deletion, Carroll tagged the second half of 
the chapter onto the following chapter, "Queen Alice," 
which, in the end, became the longest in the book, thirty 
pages. The second-longest chapter, "It's My Own Inven- 
tion," twenty-eight pages, received, as known, one page 
from "Wasp." If so, there should be some remnant of an 
old chapter break — like the remnant somewhere in "Wool 
and Water" — about ten to fifteen pages into the present 
"Queen Alice" chapter. One such possibility occurs before 
or between the following two paragraphs: 

The snoring got more distinct every minute, 
and sounded more like a tune: at last she could 
even make out words, and she listened so eagerly 
that, when the two great heads suddenly vanished 
from her lap, she hardly missed them. 

She was standing before an arched doorway 
over which were the words QUEEN ALICE in large 
letters, and on each side of the arch there was a 
bell-handle; one was marked "Visitors' Bell," and 
the other "Servants' Bell."''^ 

Notice how the words "Queen Alice," the name of the 
chapter, are first used here in the text, suggesting as well 
the vestige of some old chapter break. Also, a "dream dis- 
solve" — the inexplicable appearance and disappearance 
of people and things — occurs here, a phenomenon that 
breaks half (four out of eight) of the middle chapters in 
Looking-Glass, or with the suggested "Wool and Water" 
break, slightly higher (five out of nine). This break would 
have given the ur-"Wasp" chapter four illustrations in 

twenty-five pages and the remainder of the book twenty- 
one pages with three to seven illustrations (using the 
hand-corrected "forty-six" used on one sample title page'" 
and the fifty the book eventually became). 

A clue to the above chapter break also appears on the 
illustration plan. Carroll may have indicated the original 
breaks by staggering the page numbers, either purposely 
to organize his thinking, or accidentally, by adding the 
page numbers as the individual galleys arrived in the 
post.''*' Pages "184 ... 190 ... 198" (once ur-"Wasp") are set 
offfrom pages "201 ... 205 ... 21 1 ... 213" (once ur-"Queen 
Alice"), with pages "214 ... 218" (once ur-"Waking").''" The 
long-tailed nines support the concept. They are only used 
after Carroll completes a chapter, happily occupying the 
free space below. But when that space will be directly 
needed — after page "190," for example — Carroll scripts 
a short-tailed nine. The inconsistent use of parentheses 
after the "Frog gardener" illustration — "(w x 16)" — and 
after the "Golden Crown illustration — "(14 lines)" — also 
indicates a possible time break, and therefore a different 
galley or chapter's delivery. If so, the "Golden Crown" illus- 
tration once belonged to the "Wasp" chapter, which is fact, 
and the "It was a kitten" illustration once belonged to the 
eleventh and last chapter. 

To conclude, the similarity of the Knight's departure 
and the Wasp's farewell, a bugaboo to some,-"'** does not ap- 
pear so repetitive once separated. In truth, Alice's farewell 
to the Wasp is much shorter than the departure of the 
Knight, and certainly not as touching. Once split offfrom 
the Knight chapter, and possibly lengthened with part of 
the next chapter, the episode — perfectly fine enough for 
Carroll to have penned but perfectly weak enough for 
Tenniel to have condemned — does not appear to be so 
jarring as claimed. 

Epigraph. Lewis Carroll, Through the Look- 
ing-Glass, and Wliat Alice Found There (Lon- 
don: Macniillan, 1872), 124. 

' Lewis Carroll, "The Wasp in a Wig: Ex- 
clusive: The Missing Chapter from Alice" 
with an accompanying article by Morton 
Cohen, Telegraph: Sunday Magazine, Sep- 
tember 4, 1977, 12-21. 

^ Tenniel to Carroll, June 1, 1870, in Stuart 
Dodgson Collingwood, The Life and Letters 
of Lewis Carroll (New York: Century, 1899), 

3 Tenniel to Carroll, April 4, 1870, in Mor- 
ton N. Cohen and Edward Wakeling, Lewis 
Carroll and His Illustrators: Collaborations 
and Correspondence, 1865-1898 (New York: 
Cornell University Press, 2003), 14. 

"* Roger Lancelyn Green, The Story of Lewis 
Carroll (New York: Henry Shuman, 1949, 
rpt. 1951), 71. 

■'' Alexander L. Taylor, The White Knight: A 
Study ofC. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) (Lon- 
don: Oliver & Boyd, 1952), 138. 

'' Derek Hudson, Lewis Carroll (London: 
Constiible, 1954), 179. 

' Selwyn Goodacre, 'The Missing "Wasp' 

Chapter — A Myth Exploded," Jabbenuocky 
7, no. 3 (Summer 1978) (hereafter Sympo- 
sium): 57-58. 
^ Rodney Engen, Sir John Tenniel: Alice's White 
Knight (Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar, 
1991), 90. 

^ Veronica Hickie and Peter Shaw quoted 
in "The Sotheby Sale, and First Reac- 
tions — Open Discussion" and Raphael 
Shaberman, "Consideration of Intiuigible 
Factors," Symposium: 61-62, 65. 

'" Shaberman, "Intangible Factors," 65. 

" Edward Wakeling, "The Illustration Plan 
for Though the Looking-Glass," fahbenvocky 
21, no. 2, issue 78 (spring 1992): .32. 

''^ See note 46. 

'•* Mark Israel, email messages to the author. 

''^ Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 
land and Through the Looking-Glass, intro- 
duction and notes by Hugh Haughton 
(New York: Penguin Books, 1998, rpt. 
2003), 351. 

^^ Carroll, "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" 
and "It's My Own Invention" in Looking- 
Glass, 75 and 174, 76 and 178, 77and 179. 

"' Ibid., 177-81; Lewis Carroll, "Advice from 
a Caterpillar" in Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland (London: Macniillan, 1866), 63-66. 

'^ Janis Lull, "The Appliances of Art: The 
Carroll-Tenniel Collaboration in Through 
the Looking-Glass" in Lewis Carroll: A Celebra- 
tion; Essays on the Occasion of the 150th Anni- 
versary of the Birth of Charles Lutwidge Dodg- 
son, edited by Edward Guiliano (New York: 
Clarkson N. Potter, 1992), 105-8. The 
relevant section of the essay is presented 
in Martin Gardner, The Annotated Alice: The 
Definitive Edition (New York: Norton, 2000), 
2-38 n. 7. 

'** Shaberman, "Intangible Factors," 65; 
Selwyn Goodacre, "Open Discussion." 70. 

'^ Carroll, "The Mock Turtle's Stoiy" in 
Wonderland, 135; "Tweedledum and Twee- 
dledee" in Looking-Glass, 76; Lewis Carroll, 
"The Beaver's Lesson" (illustration) in The 
Hunting of the Snark: An Agony in Eight Fits 
(London: Macniillan, 1876), 52; Lewis Car- 
roll, "Peter and Paul" in Sylvie and Bruno 
(London: Macniillan, 1889), 149; Lewis 
Carroll, "The Pig-Tale" in Sylvie and Bruno 
Concluded (London: Macmil- 


Ian, 1893), 371-73; Lewis Carroll, Symbolic 
Logic, edited with annotations and an 
introduction by William Warren Bartley, III 
(New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1977), 
147-58, 180-84, 378-80, 398-99, 410. 

^" Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60; Lewis 
Carroll, The Wasp in a Wig: A "Suppressed" 
Episode of Through the Looking-Glass and 
What Alice Found There, with a introduction 
and notes by Martin Gardner (Bath: Mac- 
millan, 1977), 40. 

^' E. Ward Gilman, ed., Webster's Dictionary 
of English Usage (Springfield, Mass: Mer- 
riam-Webster, 1989), 124. The work cites J. 
J. Lamberts, .4 Short Introduction to English 
Usage {New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972). 
Thanks to Mark Israel for confirming 
suspicions about the negative rule. 

^'^ Carroll, "Pig and Pepper" and "The Mock 
Turtle's Story" in Wonderland, 93 and 
143; Carroll, "Looking-Glass House" and 
"Tweedledum and Tweedledee" in Looking- 
Glass, 13 and 79. 

'^^ Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60. 

24 Lewis Carroll, "Willow Tree" (1859) in 
Three Sunsets and Other Poems (London: 
Macmillan, 1898), 42-43; "Humpty 
Dumpt)'" in Looking-Glass, 130-34; "Matilda 
Jane" in Sybne and Bruno Concluded, 76. 

'^^ Veronica Hickie, "Open Discussion," 61. 
Shaw concurred with Hickie, stating "If it 
really purports to follow the White Knight, 
it is such a gross error" (ibid., 62). 

2*^ Carroll to Tenniel, [n. d.] in Collingwood, 
Life and Letters, 130. See also note 53 in the 
next section. 

'^' Carroll, Wasp in a Wig, 40. 

2^ P. F. Walker, "Open Discussion," 62; Gard- 
ner, Wasp in a Wig, 20. 

'^^ Selwyn Goodacre, "Considerations of 
Physical Factors," Symposium: 73. 

•'^" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nAed. (New 
York: Oxford University Press, 2002), CD- 
ROM, version 3.0, s.w. "Davyne," "surtout" 
and "unveined" respectfully. 

^' Jeffrey Stern, Lewis Carroll Bibliophile 
(Luton, Bedfordshire: White Stone Pub- 
lishing; The Lewis Carroll Society, 1997), 
17, 19 and 25. 

-'''^ Lewis Carroll, "Phantasmagoria" (canto 7, 
stanza 4), "The Three Voices" (section 2, 
stanza 13) and "A Double Acrostic" (stanza 
2) in Phantasmagoria (London: Macmillan, 
1869), 54, 99 and 110; and Lewis Car- 
roll, "Four Riddles" (poem 3, stanza 2) in 
Rhyme? and Reason? (London: Macmillan, 
1883), 208; and Lewis Carroll, "You Are 
Old Father William" in Alice's Adventures 
under Ground {London: Macmillan, 1886 
[facsimile, first handwritten, 1863]; re- 
print, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University 
Microfilms, 1964), 55. "Four Riddles" is an 
expansion of "A Double Acrostic." Thanks 
to Mark Israel for alerting me of the pos- 
sible use of "gray" in Phantasmagoria. 

^^ Goodacre, "Physical Factors," 73. 

'^'» Ibid., 74. 

^^ Stanley Godman, "Lewis Carroll's Final 
Corrections to 'Alice,'" Times Literary 
Supplement, May 2, 1958, 248. Godman lists 
the hand-corrections Carroll made in the 
two Alicehooks. Since he only details the 
three made for Looking-Glass and one from 
Wonderland — all four have this rule — and 
that if this were not the rule, there would 
be hundreds of changes, I assume the 
rules to be so. 

^*' Carroll, Wasp in a Wig, 40. 

^"^ Ibid., 39. The examples are found on 
galley 65: "The Wasp said "That's a new- 
fangled name" and "Alice hastily ran her 
eye down the paper and said 'No ....'" 

•'*^ Godman, "Final Corrections," 248. The 
missing twenty-two is an estimation made 
by the current author The extensive analy- 
sis accomplished with electronic versions 
of the tales and facsimile editions is too 
long to present here. 

•"^ Goodacre, "Physical Factors," 74. Good- 
acre also observed that the galleys were 
numbered ten pages too early. This, how- 
ever, was not offered as suspicious; the 
forger could have determined this as easily 
as Goodacre could have in 1976 and as I 
can do a tad more easily today with a per- 
sonal computer. The fact either .suggests 
that Carroll added material — confirmed 
only partly from the revised page numbers 
on the illustration plan — or that the gal- 
leys changed size. In fact, slips dated May 
13, 1882, for Carroll's Euclid I , II (Fales 
Library, NYU) have two different sizes. The 
standard Wasp slip, judging from photo- 
graphs of the original pages obtained by 
the present owners, has a rather wide top 
and bottom margin (2 3/4" and 2-1/4") 
and a rather short text length (12") when 
compared to the smaller of the two Euclid 
galleys having a short top and bottom 
margin (3/4" and 5/8") and a long text 
length (15 7/8"). Hence, with the galleys 
for Looking-Glass being created over a two- 
year period — see Diaries from January 12, 
1869 toJanuai"y 13, 1871 — and with many 
other slips from the same period having 
considerably longer lengths, there is no 
reason to assume that the earlier slips had 
similar dimensions. 

*" Catalogue of Children 's Books, Drawings 
and Juvenilia... (London: Sotheby & Co., 
1974), 18. Sotheby held the auction on 
June 3, 1974. 

"*' Stern, Bihliof)hile, iv. 

"*' Lewis Carroll, [Illustration Plan for Look- 
ing-Glass}, Christ Church Library, Oxford. 
All is in black ink except: "E = ordered to 
be electrot>'ped p. 23" and the "E" before 
each illustration; the "x" before the "E" 
for each illustration on the second page; 
"Frontispiece of Alice and Knight"; the 
circled 4, 6, 1, 2, 3 (showing illustrations 
spread) and the adjacent vertical writ- 
ing; the circled 24, 20, 20 (showing page 
counts); all illustration sizes on page 2; 
"Sending message to fish"; "(speak — can't 
you?"; the line crossing out "Knight sing- 

ing" and "Wasp"; everything after the last 
horizontal line except for maybe the line 
crossing out the second "39"; the "Lion" 
and the crossing out of "Unicorn"; the 
crossing out of "(or else 45)" and "(or else 
39)"; the last corrected page number be- 
ginning with chapter 2; the page number 
representing the Jabberwock and begin- 
ning with chapter 2; some minor correc- 
tions on the illustration sizes for illustra- 
tions 2, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 22. Thanks 
to Edward Wakeling for adding colors to 
my thoughts. 

^^ See note 1 1 for the first publication of the 
plan, revealing many never-before-known 
details about Looking-Glass, many of which 
are largely ignored. 

'*'* See notes 2 and 3. 

^^ Warren Weaver , "Ink and Pen Used by 
Lewis CiiTToW," Jabbenvocky 4, no. 1, issue 21 
(Winter 1975): 3-4; Lewis Carroll, Januar)' 
4, 1871, Edward Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's 
Diaries: The Private Journals of Charles Lut- 
widge Dodgson (Clifford, England: The 
Lewis Carroll Society, 2001), 6:139. 

4'' Lewis Carroll, [Preliminary Pages to Look- 
ing-Glass] , Houghton Library, Harvard 
University, Cambridge. The table of 
contents leaflet includes a bastard title 
("Looking-Glass House / And What Alice 
Saw There" corrected in violet ink to 
the final title) and the dedicatory poem 
(corrected in black and violet ink). The 
corrections for the contents page are in 
violet ink, except the following in pencil: 
"Looking-Glass House," the deletion of 
"The Glass Curtain," the page number 1, 
the bracket, the first three diagonal lines; 
and the following in black ink: the diago- 
nal leading to the word "Check!" The first 
penciled diagonal is overwritten in violet 
(and "Living Backwards" is crossed out in 
violet). Atop the leaflet in a single sheet 
is an early 1870 title page with "Through 
the Looking-Glass / What Alice Found There" 
corrected in violet ink to the final title and 
with "Forty-Two" corrected in violet ink to 
"Fort\'-Six" illustrations. Incidentally, the 
missing quotation mark in the first edition 
for the final title of chapter eight — "It's My 
Own Invention ["] — may indicate that it 
was a late change. Thanks to Tom Ford for 
pointing out the pencil markings. 

4^ Morton Cohen, Leiuis Carroll and the House 
of Macmillan (New York: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1987), 85 n. 1. 

'^^ Sidney Herbert Williams and Falconer 
Madan, A Handbook of the Literature of the 
Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) (London: 
Milford, 1931), 236. 

'^^ Collingwood, Life and Letters, 146. Colling- 
wood quotes Tenniel as saying "a wasp in a 
wig is altogether beyond the appliances of 
art," a comment not found in the facsimile 
letter, though it could be from the side not 

■^^ Carroll is documented as sending the first 
chapter of Looking-Glass separately 


{Diary, yanudij 12, 1869), which would 
have forced a page break if set before 
other chapters were received. However, it 
is not known how he proceeded beyond 
this point. For the lack of page breaks on 
galleys between chapters, see J. M. Barrie, 
The Greenwood Hat, galley proofs, c. 19.S7, 
The Berg Collection, The New York Pub- 
lic Library. Also, see Carroll to Gertrude 
Thomson, November 12, 1897, in Cohen 
and Wakeling, Lewis Carroll and His Illustra- 
tors, 313. Carroll writes "Printer's proofs 
are always done on thin cheap paper, and 
with no 'bringing-up" of pictures, and 
come out anyhow" (Carroll's italics). 

■''' Carroll, "Wool and Water" in Looking-Glass, 

•'''^ Denis C-rutch, "A Possible Reconstruction" 
and "Post Script," Symposium: 77-78, 80. 

^^ Carroll to Reginald Brimleyjohnson, 
May 16, 1893, Literature2, no. 9 (March 5, 
1898): 269. Carroll wrote, replying to John- 
son, who was editing Samuel Butler for a 
series on the Aldine Poets: "I have certainly 
no consciousness of having borrowed the 
idea of the inventions of the W^ite Knight 
from anything in 'Hudibras'.... The char- 
acter of the White Knight was meant to 
suit the speaker in the poem." 

•'''* Carroll, "Queen Alice" in Looking-Glass, 

''■' Carroll, [Preliminary Pages to Looking- 
Glass] . 

'"'' In his diary enti7 for January 12, 1869, 
Carroll showed signs of working chapter by 
chapter: "Finished and sent off to Macmil- 
lan the 1st chapter...." 

^"^ Ur-"Waking," judging from Harvard's con- 
tents page, indeed consisted of the present 
last three chapters. 

•''*^ See note 25. 


' Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60; Carroll, 
Wasp in a Wig, 40; (Carroll, "Advice from a 
Caterpillar" in Wonderland, 64. 

- Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60; Car- 
roll, Wasp in a Wig, 40; Carroll, "Humpty 
Dumpty" in Looking-Glass, 135-36. 

■' Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60; Carroll, 
Wasp in a Wig, 39; Carroll, "Queen Alice" 
in Looking-Glass, 193. 

^ Michael Orlove, "Open Discussion," 
61; Carroll, Wasp in a Wig, 40; Carroll, 
"Humpty Dumpty" in Looking-Glass, 133. 

' Brian Sibley, "For Starters — A 'Suppressed' 
Course from Queen Alice's Dinner-Party," 
Symposium: 67; Carroll, Wasp in a Wig, 39; 
Carroll, "A Mad Tea-Party" in Wonderland, 
106-8. A mention of treacle is also found 
in "Who Stole the Tarts?" in Wonderland, 
174. Sibley may also be referring to the 
rhyme in "Queen Alice" in Looking-Glass, 
203. "Then fill up the glasses with treacle 

and ink, / Or anything else that is pleasant 
to drink...." 

'' Orlove "Open Discussion," 61; Ciarroll, 
Wasp in a Wig, 40; Carroll, the prefatory 
poem in Looking-Glass. 

^ Sibley, "For Starters," 68; Carroll, Wasp in a 
Wig, 40; Carroll, "Wool and Water" in Look- 
ing-Glass, 93-94. 

^ Goodacre, "Open Discussion," 60; (>arroll. 
Wasp in a Wig, 40; Carroll, "It's My Own 
Invendon" in Looking-Glass, 182-83. 

■' Gardner, Wasp in a Wig, 20; Carroll, Wasp 
in a Wig, 38; "Looking-Glass Insects" in 
Looking-Glass, 52-53. Gardner credits Peter 
Heath with this view. 
'" Gardner, Wasp in a Wig, 20; Carroll, Wasp 
in a Wig, 38-39; "Queen Alice" in Looking- 
Glass, 200 and 202. This is another point 
from Peter Heath, who also noted two pre- 
vious curiosities: Humpty Dumpty 's face 
dialog and the White Queen's bad hair day 
in chapter 5. 

I'he Illustration /^/a« /or Through the Looking- 
Glass is reprinted with the kind permission of the 
Governing Body of Christ Church, Oxford. 

The early draft oj the Table of Contents for 
Through the Looking-Glass is printed by permis- 
sion of the Houghton Library, Harvard University. 



Ihe Qag Writer 

Clare Imholtz 


M round 1921, Wanda Gag, the well-known Ameri- 
can children's author and graphic artist, wrote 
and drew a short comic-strip-style parody called 
Alice in Blunderland — Part I — Through the Good-Looking 
Glass. Unseen for some 70 years, the parody — one panel 
of it — finally surfaced in a 1994 book about Carroll by 
Japanese author Yuko Katsura. Curiosity led me to write 
to both Katsura and Gag scholar Karen Nelson Hoyle. I 
was never able to find out how Blunderland made its way 
to Japan, but I had more success in Gag's home state: Dr. 
Hoyle, the curator of the Kerlan Collection of Children's 

Alice was in a big room ivilli a beautiful 
mirror in it. "What a good-looking glass!" she 
exclaimed, "and since I'm Alice, I suppose 1 
must go through it. " She climbed up on the 
mantle piece and took a big step. She went 
through easily enough, since it was not a 
glass at all, but a silvery curtain with reflec- 
tions painted on it. 

Literature at the University of Minnesota, was able to lo- 
cate the original parody and to provide me with a copy. 

Gag was born in New Ulm, Minnesota, in 1893. The 
eldest of seven, forced to make her own way in life due to 
her father's early death and her mother's alcoholism, she 
won scholarships to art schools in Minneapolis and then 
New York. Her parents were immigrants from Bohemia, 
but in New York Gag became a true Bohemian in the cul- 
tural sense of the word. She believed in free love and lived 
for her art. Although she struggled economically for many 
years, Gag eventually achieved substantial success. Today 
she is remembered mostly for her children's books, the 
most popular of which, Millions of Cats, can still be found 
in bookstores, having been continuously in print since its 
publication in 1928. 

Alice was so surprised that she forgot to look xohere she 
was going. Crash! Splinter! Splash! She had stepped 
right into a teafjarty. The peanut-butter sandiviches 
flew away — the fragments of broken dishes gathered 
themseliies together and marched off in a huff — and 
the tea flowed away in little rivulets. "There should be a 
dormouse and a hare and a hatter around somewhere, " 
said Alice, looking at the wreck — in dismay. 

Oh, here's one of them!" she added, as she spied a 
frightened-looking rabbit on the floor "Are you the 
March Hare?" "No, " wailed the poor thing. "I'm 
the Welsh Rabbit!" "Don't you mean Rarebit?" 
asked Alice. But the r(d)bit looked so offended that 
Alice quickly changed the subject. "And where is 
the Dormouse ? " she asked. 


// s the Sad Hatter, " explained the WrLsli 
Rabbit, "You kicked him of/his chair as 
you came douni. "At this point the Hatter 
crawled out of a corner. "Too bad, too bad, 
he said, looking tearfully at his watch. 
"Couldn 't you have stepped on us a few 
minutes later? I was about to do a trick!" 
"I'm very sony I made such a blunder, " 
said Alice, someivhat ashamed. 

.4 sb'epy voice came from under the table. ''Here I am, " // 
said. Alice pulkd the table cloth aside. "Oh, "she said, 
"I hardly expected you to look so much like furniture!" 
"Why not? Fm a genuine door-mouse — a front-door 
mouse. My brother is a back-door mouse, my cousins are 
cellar-door mice, my uncle — " But he was interrupted by 
a loud III ail. 

Bliinderlnnd is one of many short works that Gag 
produced in the early 1920s while trying to keep body 
and soul together in New York City. According to Karen 
Hoyle's book-length study,' Gag's lover, Earle Humphreys, 
tried unsuccessfully to sell Blunderland to Woman's Home 
Companion for its "Jolly Juniors" page. Gag had more 
success with "Wanda's Wonderland," a series of illustrated 
stories accompanied by crossword puzzles, which were syn- 
dicated to several newspapers. However, despite the title 
these pieces were not Carrollian in natiue. 

Alice in Blunderland — Part I — Through the Good-Look- 
ing Glass consists of a hand-lettered title page and six 
small drawings with typewritten text pasted beneath each. 
Blunderland conflates the two Alice books: her Alice 
climbs through a silvery curtain/looking glass and finds 

"Oh, as to that, " ivept the Sad Hatter, "this 
is Blunderland, and it was bound to hap- 
pen sometime. Only my trick was due at four 
o'clock to-day, and noiv it's too late, ft only 
ivorks once a month, you knoxv. " "Never 
mind, " encouraged tfw rabbit. "Time flies, 
and next month will be here in forty winks!" 
"And forty winks, " yaivned the Door-mouse, 
"means a cozy nap. Let's snooze until it gets 

herself at the Tea Party where she meets the Sad Hatter, 
the Welsh Rabbit, and the Door-Mouse. The parody is only 
mildlv amusing. Gag's main gag is that Alice has a post- 
modern awareness of her predecessor's exploits. Nonethe- 
less, it's always nice to see Alice in the hands of another 
famous illustrator, even briefly. The Sad Tea Party reminds 
me of the Tea Part)' in Lisbeth Zwerger's Alice. Presumably, 
there was never a Part II to Blunderland. If there had been, 
I imagine Alice might have fallen down the rabbit hole 
and landed right on the Tweedles. 

Illustrations and captions reprinted with the permission of the 
Wanda Gag estate in the person of her nepheio, Mr Gary Harm. 

' Karen Nelson Hoyle, Wanda Gag (New York: Twayne Publishers, 
1994). Most of the biographical details are drawn from this work. 


First, Congrats on the new Knight 
Letter. I just received my copy and it's 
gorgeous — even more of a pleasure to 
read than usual, with all the elegant 
and practical visual enhancements. 
Attractive, playful and clear all at the 
same time — -just the right approach in 
my book. Well done, and my compli- 
ments to you, the designer, and all 
involved in making it happen. 

Andreiv Sellon 

Brooklyn, New York 

The only problem I have with the 
new issue is that people will not be 
inclined to talk about a "Couple of 
Things Too Many," read or not (if 
I may), but of one thing: Andrew 
Ogus's new layout and design. Write 
a letter to your feet, Mark, in our eyes 
you are "opening out like the largest 
telescope that ever was!" Congratula- 

Matthew Demakos 

Madison, NJ 

The newest issue of the Knight Letter 
looks very much like a journal! Under 
your editorship, the publication has 
become quite professional and a 
desirable vehicle for scholars to write 
articles on a wide variety of Carroll- 
connected topics. 

Fran Abeles 

Union, NJ 

leaves ]:koqj 
The Deaneny GaKden 

Herewith adding my voice to the 
admiring throngs: Knight Letter 7 1 
looks fabu!!!!! Our little newsletter 
is all grown up and has become a 
magazine! It is so readable and easy 
to navigate and the graphics are per- 
fect. It's fun and professional but not 
slickly commercial or bland — still very 
suitable to us and with a high niftiness 
factor. Not to mention that the arti- 
cles and news were all very interesting 
as well! I would think many members 
who had never been much involved or 
interested will be drawn in. Mazel tov! 

Stephanie Lovett 

Winston-Salem, NC 

I think the new Knight Letter format 
is handsome. I like using the titles of 
the family magazines, and I like the 
photographs. One can hardly say that 
the use of photographs violates the 
spirit of this Victorian subject. Best 

Gary Brockman 

Madison, CT 

What a gorgeous new look of the 
Knight Letter^. My congratulations to 
you! Do congratulate Andrew Ogus 
and Matt Demakos also on my behalf. 

Nina Demourova 


I wanted to write and tell you how 
much I liked the new format of Knight 
Letter. The new layout makes it easier 
to read and there is a nice mix of news 
and articles. Congratulations! 

Dayna McCausland 

The Lewis Carroll Society 
of Canada 

Erin, Ontario, Canada 


The new Knight Letter x?, very good ... a 
nice style and an impressive mixture 
of content. Well done to you and your 

Mark Richards 

The Lewis Carroll Society (UK) 


Issue 71 oi Knight Letter xs an unusu- 
ally heady feast of articles bursting 
with ideas, discoveries and illumina- 
tions. All of them enriched me, but 
I'll limit my comments to the two 
that reveal heretofore unguessed-at 
patterns connecting familiar Carroll 
poems with the real world. Though 
I doubt that either pattern was in- 
tended by Carroll, I think he would 
have been delighted by both of them, 
and I admire the minds capable of 
constructing them, like "found art," 
from previously unlinked curiosities 
of the Victorian world. 


"The Incorruptible Crown": By the 

simple device of reversing the letters 
of SNARK, Kate Lyon introduces us to 
the somber and touching social his- 
tory of chaplets and dying youth, the 
deep classical and Victorian backdrop 
of the deathbed attendance from 
which Dodgson was taking a break 
when the Snark entered his thoughts. 
It reminds me of the medieval Chris- 
tians' realization that when the He- 
brew and Greek scriptures were both 
translated into Latin, the with 
which the serpent could be supposed 
to have hailed Eve was reversed by 
the AveWxih which Gabriel addressed 
Mary at the Annunciation. 

This EVA- AVE link could be seen as 
the hinge joining two symmetrically 
contrasting patterns of Fall and Re- 
demption. The serpent's tempting the 
First Eve to disobedience was coun- 
tered by the angel's guiding the Sec- 
ond Eve to obedience. In the gardens 
of Eden and Gethsemane the First 
Adam and Second Adam respectively 
yielded to or overcame temptation. By 
means of one tree came sin; by means 
of another came salvation. And on 
and on. Though but an accident of 
Latin spelling, the eva-ave symmetry, 
once seen, evokes an organizing struc- 
ture difficult to forget. To me, the 
SNARK-KRANS symmetry is like that. 

"On aWalrus Train of Thought": Lively 
minds cannot always resist outwitting 
wit itself. We all know that the joke 
of the Hatter's riddle is that there is 
no answer. But the joke was hardly in 
print before readers — and author — 
were contriving answers, some of 
them gems. Matthew Demakos seems 
to have met a challenge exponentially 
greater, answering the implied riddle 
"Why are shoes like ships — as well as 
like sealing-wax, cabbages, kings, the 
sea, the word hot, pigs and wings? 

Of course, the joke in the "time 
has come" stanza of "The Walrus and 
the Carpenter" is that the Walrus's 
agendum comprises perversely un- 
linkable items. So finding a common 
term for all of them surely demanded 
uncommon savvy and labor and luck. 
(The joke of suggesting a string of 
arbitrary conversational topics was 
repeated at epic length by Cole Por- 
ter in the tongue-testing patter song, 
"Let's Not Talk About Love," which 

he wrote for Eve Arden and Danny 
Kaye, in the 1941 Broadway show LeVs 
Face It. The dozens of suggested topics 
range from "Walkiiries" to "verbos- 
ity," with such issues as "why chickens 
cross roads," the "synonymy of free- 
dom and autonomy" and Garbo's 
gunboat shoe size along the way.) 

"On a Walrus Train of Thought" is 
a thrilling excursion. If others have 
ventured on the same quest, I can't 
imagine that anyone has done so with 
Demakos' ingenuity and assiduity, his 
scholarship, linguistic facility, fearless- 
ness and infectious enthusiasm. While 
reading, I marveled at the range of 
arcane subjects he explored, and I en- 
joyed frequent frissons at the singular 
coincidences and unexpected paral- 
lels he uncovered. He seemed to treat 
all of literature, culture and nature as 
a cryptic crossword puzzle he could 
solve. It is as though he traced the 
trail of a red clew through a labyrinth 
that no one else had guessed existed. 

Awed by this feat, I would never 
cavil if some of the connections seem 
strained or tenuous. Just how far one 
can skate out on the thinning ice is 
the measure of this kind of intellec- 
tual game. My reservations are not 
with the treasures and trifles Demakos 
has assembled for our bedazzlement 
but with two of his arguments which I 
find unconvincing and unnecessary: 

The Chapter-Heading Argument Yes, 
there is a typographic resemblance 
between the cabbages-and-kings 
list and the dash-stitched topical 
synopses at the heads of chapters 
in Victorian books. Surely I'm not 
the only reader who responded to 
Demakos' observing this by thinking, 
"Of course!" 

The likeness, however, is limited. 
Demakos' citation from Arctic Explora- 
tions is a superb model of a typical 
synopsis. In each topic heading the 
initial word and all nouns are capital- 
ized. Headings are separated by long 
dashes rather than conjunctions. 
Yet Carroll does not capitalize the 
Walrus's topics as if they were head- 
ings. The Walrus introduces five of his 
seven topics by the conjunction and, 
precisely as if he were improvising a 
spoken list. In fact, nothing in the for- 
mat of the Walrus's famous sentence 

suggests a chapter synopsis — save the 
long dashes. 

And what of them? Though liberal 
dashing was undeniably standard in 
many Victorian chapter headings, it 
was also common in all the contem- 
porary literary forms pertinent to 
the Walrus's versified speech: poetry, 
dialog and serial description (or lists). 

The nineteenth century was so tol- 
erant of this punctuation that writers 
feeling too lazy to wrestle with syntax 
could often get away with simply 
stapling non sequiturs together with 
dashes. Better writers inserted dashes 
to dramatize patterns of spontaneous 
thought and speech. Even descrip- 
tions and lists came to life when this 
device was used to indicate the hesita- 
tions and natural pauses of a narra- 
tor calling to mind the next word or 

I found it easier to turn up exam- 
ples than I expected. The first Vic- 
torian novel I snatched from a shelf 
was Elizabeth Gaskell's 1866 Wives 
and Daughters. I have never read Mrs. 
Gaskell's fiction but, in a quick riffle 
through the 1969 Penguin edition, 
numerous dashed passages caught 
my eve. The most succinct instance is 
this speech on page 528: "'It must be 
horrible — I think I'm very brave — but 
I don't think I could have — could 
have accepted even Roger, with a 
half-cancelled engagement hanging 
over me.'" Handy evidence that Car- 
roll was adept at exactly this trick of 
punctuating conversation is the sec- 
ond paragraph of Wonderland, chapter 
ten. In the first volume of poetry I 
let fall open — a thin volume of Poe's 
verse — the second poem I looked at 
("Coliseum," 1833) offered this W^al- 
rus-presaging passage: 

But stay! these walls — these ivy- 
clad arcades — 
These mouldering plinths — these 

sad and blackened shafts — 
These vague entablatures — this 

crimibling frieze — 
These shattered cornices — this 

wreck — this ruin — 
These stones — alas! these grey 

stones — are they all — 
All of the famed, and the colossal 

By the corrosive Hours to Fate 

and me? 


As I don't understand why De- 
makos thinks the Oysters' use of the 
singular chat confirms Carroll's chap- 
ter-heading intentions, I can't dispute 
it. (I won't even ask how the Oysters 
could know the Walrus was talking 
in dashes, as elsewhere Demakos has 
the Oysters hearing the dashes only 
as thought-provoking pauses.) But in 
my experience speakers of idiomatic 
English would no more refer to a 
seven-topic conversation as chats than 
they would refer to a seven-course 
dinner as meals. 

The "Randomness" Argument Suppose 
that Carroll did not have the word red 
in mind when selecting the Walrus's 
proposed talking points. How likely 
is it that red might be connected to 
those points purely by accident? 

Well, think of ravens and writing- 
desks, which at first seemed to have 
nothing in common, then only a few 
things (such as quills and bills), and 
then so many things that entire books 
have been written on the subject. 
The vast and expanding vocabulary 
of English is networked with so many 
crisscrossing connections that lexicog- 
raphers grow faint trying to record 
all the relations and distinct uses of 
even the simplest words. Therefore 
we would predict that given any 
two terms in the W^alrus's list, there 
should be so many connections that 
a few would come readily to mind, 
and even offer opportunities for wit. 
(How are shoes like ships? Both travel 
with their bows foremost. How are ships 
like sealing-wax? Crests raise ships and 
are raised in sealing-ivax. How is sealing- 
wax like cabbages? Both contain (hold 
in/include) leaves. How are cabbages 
like kings? Both may be called Cole; both 
may lose their heads, etc.) For most 
pairs, as for the pair in the Hatter's 
riddle, new answers could probably 
still be found even after fourteen 
decades of discoveries. 

But what about linking three of the 
terms? Though the field of possible 
connections would be significantly 
smaller than for two, and significantly 
harder to find, and significantly less 
susceptible to wordplay, we could 
expect there to be such a field, and 
possibly an inexhaustible one. And so 
the trend would continue as we at- 


tempted to link four terms, or five, or 
six, or — in Demakos's case — nine! 

His achievement staggers me. Yet 
there is no reason to think that, given 
enough time and reference books, 
a clever (and extremely long-lived) 
scholar could not eventually identify 
a verbal hub with spokes radiating to 
all the terms in the Walrus's list. In 
fact, considering the multitudinous 
ties among English words, it would be 
surprising were it otherwise. It would 
also be surprising if the word red were 
the only connection that could ever 
be found. Demakos' inventive sce- 
nario involving walrus-hunts shows 
that the connection need not even 
be a single word. Perhaps some illu- 
minated medieval manuscript of the 
book of Revelation will be discovered 
to sport in its margins images of an 
apocalyptic wax seal's being broken, 
a wracked ship atilt in a boiling sea, 
a starving king trading a golden shoe 
for a withered cabbage — and winged, 
tusked, fiery-eyed boars dragging the 
damned into the mouth of hell. Who 
knows what awaits the seeking eye? 

I have approached this step by step 
to make an important point: Given 
enough variables with elements in 
common, and enough shuffling of 
those variables, coincidences are 
inevitable. Any given coincidence 
may be jaw-droppingly rare, though 
no less a coincidence for all that. Yet 
Demakos appears to think (and I trust 
he will forgive me if I've misunder- 
stood him) that what is unlikely can- 
not also be what he calls "random." 
True randomness is counterintuitive. 
Select the non-random sequence or 
sequences of dice faces from the fol- 
lowing: 3261545, 5526141, 1111111, 
3415434, 6543211, 2541443. As 
startling as it may be to us non-stat- 
isticians, there is no way to tell from 
the information given which, if any, 
series were randomly produced. Each 
of these sequences is exactly as likely 
to be rolled as any other. Though 
1111111 comes up with impressive 
rarity (once in every 279,936 rolls), 
it is the same impressive rarity with 
which 3415434 — or any order of seven 
dice — can be expected to appear. 

We commonly mislabel patterns as 
"random" if they are meaningless to 
us and "nonrandom" if we can read 

a meaning into them. Since most 
possible patterns are gibberish, and 
to us interchangeable, we consider 
them qualitatively different from 
sequences that make sense to us. But 
they are not. Any given meaningless 
pattern is exactly as likely or unlikely 
to occur by chance alone as any given 
meaningful pattern of the same units. 
The laws of probability make no dis- 
tinction between walrus and urslaw. 
The accidental spelling of red^Nith. 
three blindly drawn anagram tiles is 
indistinguishable from the same word 
intentionally spelled. Hence, the only 
way to know if a certain sequence is 
random or nonrandom is to know 
how it was generated. The only way 
we could know if Carroll intended the 
Walrus's list to be connected to the 
term red is by some credible record of 
his saying so. Even evidence that this 
is the kind of literary hide-and-seek 
he committed or toyed with elsewhere 
would make it more plausible. 

However, this is not the sort of 
evidence Demakos presents. To prove 
that the Walrus's nine words are not 
just accidentally among the "thou- 
sands" of words he estimates are 
modified by red, Demakos selects nine 
substantive nouns (why, when hot is 
not a noun?) from scattered works of 
Dickens — and shows that they do not 
combine with the word red. This is like 
determining the randomness of one 
poker hand by dealing a second hand 
from another deck, then comparing 
their properties. The second hand is 
utterly independent from, and can 
tell us nothing about the genesis of, 
the first hand. I'm guessing that what 
Demakos was after was a sense of just 
how likely or unlikely the red connec- 
tion is. But no single test could pro- 
vide that. 

The study of probabilities began 
when mathematicians painstakingly 
enumerated every possible permuta- 
tion of dice-roll, coin-flip, card-deal — 
then tabulated the results. The equiv- 
alent investigation in this case might 
begin with every nine-word set of 
consecutively appearing nouns (and 
adjectives?) in all of Carroll's works. 
Then we would assign someone as 
tirelessly resourceful as Matt Demakos 
to score each set for the number of its 
words (0-9) that con- 

nect, however remotely, to the word 
red. (With moon, sun, sea, sand, cloud, 
bird, xualrus, carpenter a.nd hand, to 
take nearby samples, the score might 
be high.) But why only red? It hap- 
pens to be the first word Demakos 
unearthed connected to the entire 
Walrus's list, but he presumably did 
not set out with that word or color in 
mind. So for each nine-word set we 
want to scour the entire vocabulary of 
the English language to find the word 
or phrase that connects to the most 
words in that set. 

Were this Herculean enterprise 
ever accomplished, we would know in 
what percentage of Carrollian nine- 
word sets all nine words related to 
a common word or term. We would 
even know how many of those com- 
mon words happened to be red. Then, 
and only then, could we have an accu- 
rate sense of how unusual, statistically, 
Demakos' discovery actually is. But 
two things would remain unchanged: 
We would still not know whether 
Carroll intended the red connection, 
and we would still be charmed and 
astonished by Demakos' remarkable 
tour de force. 

Gary Brockman 

Madison, CT 

Somewhat reluctantly I feel I must 
take issue with Edward Wakeling's 
commentary notes to my exploratory 
article, "X Markse the Spot," in the 
last Knight Letter. I could also take 
this opportunity to distance myself 
from the title of this piece. I confess 
to more than a little surprise at Ed- 
ward's statement regarding Carroll's 
relationship with Tyrwhitt. He states 
that "They [Carroll and Tyrwhitt] 
had some discussion about 'art' but 
the impression I get is that Dodgson 
didn't accept Tyi-whitt's argument." 
Wakeling implies, apparently, that this 
was a little more than a transitory re- 
lationship. This is wholly misleading, 
however, and is contradicted by Wake- 
ling himself in the diaries where he 
states "The two men often discussed 
social and religious matters" {Diaries, 
January?, 1856,2:11 n.l2). 

Wliat is particularly siuprising is 
that the context of this diary note is 
an entry by Carroll regarding his read- 

ing o^ Alton Locke, Charles Kingsley's 
book on the "privations and miseries 
of the poor..." Carroll was extremely 
sympathetic to Kingsley's thesis, and 
the book had a profound effect on 
him. In this particular case, however, 
he was comparing Kingsley unfavor- 
ably to Paley on the matter of mira- 
cles. Carroll (most unusually in such 
matters) appears to be deferring to 
Tyrwhitt's reading of Kingsley. 

There are a number of points to 
be raised here, all of which Wakeling 
is aware of. (I have discussed these 
matters with him several times and 
he has appeared to accept the theses 
involved.) The first is that, at the time 
of the entry, Carroll was in a marked 
minority among Oxford clergy in 
expressing sympathy for Kingsley's 
writing. Not only was Kingsley deemed 
a "Chartist," but, perhaps more damn- 
ing, his Broad Church, neo-Platonist 
theology was utterly contrary to that 
of the Oxford establishment of the 
time. Kingsley, of course, was — with 
Frederick Dennison Maurice — a 
founder of the Christian Socialist 
Movement. Carroll's lifelong admira- 
tion of Maurice is now (I hope) wholly 
accepted. For Carroll to be discussing 
Kingsley with Tyrwhitt in such circum- 
stances does indicate a level of sym- 
pathy and trust that extends beyond 
mere acquaintanceship. Tyrwhitt, of 
course, was also a named recipient 
of a copy of Wonderland — a fact that 
indicates that the relationship was not 
merely transient. Indeed, having had 
the honor and pleasure of seeing the 
inscribed edition that Carroll sent to 
Tyrwhitt, I can say that the extended 
inscription demonstrates the closeness 
of the relationship. As Wakeling has 
also seen this inscription, I find it odd 
that he attempts in this contradictory 
way to play down their relationship — 
and deflect the focus from religious 
and social to "merely" one of common 
interest in art. 

Of course, it was wholly inevitable 
that Carroll would seek out Tyrwhitt at 
Oxford, given, as Wakeling notes, that 
the Tyrwhitts (like the Hudsons) were 
one of the "great" Northeast families. 
Carroll's own family's strong North- 
east links are well documented. I also 
note that Tyi-whitt's father was 

recorder of Chester — another geo- 
graphic coincidence! 

Regarding Wakeling's comments 
on Marske: He states that "To say that 
Marske Hall was the only place where 
the Dodgsons could have stayed is 
somewhat deceptive. There were 
other buildings including a school, 52 
houses, and a rectory." Well, I'm sorry 
if this seems "deceptive" to Wake- 
ling — but I was placing my comment 
in the context of nineteenth-century 
mores and social relationships. If Mr. 
Wakeling wishes to consider it likely 
that Dodgson Sr. would feel it socially 
appropriate to lodge at any one of 
the 52 houses, the school, or even the 
"small" rectory, then I would be most 
intrigued to hear his arguments in 
support of such a thesis. If we know 
anything of Dodgson Sr., it is that he 
would never either impose himself 
inappropriately or do anything that 
would detrimentally affect the dignity 
and status of himself or his family. 
The Dodgsons, as we know, were 
always fully aware of their social posi- 
tion. Of course, should Wakeling's 
inferred proposition be correct — that 
is, that Dodgson Sr. was not a guest of 
the Huttons — why, that makes his rea- 
sons for visiting Marske all the more 
intriguing, and all the more worthy of 
exploration and explanation. As I sub- 
mitted my piece in order to stimulate 
further research, this possibility does 
have its attractions. 

John Tufail 

London, U.K. 


Many thanks for allowing me to read 
John Tufail's letter and for giving me 
an opportunity to respond. The sub- 
stance of his response seems to focus 
on my comment on his statement 
that Richard St. John Tyrwhitt "was 
one of Carroll's closest companions 
in his early years at Christ Church." 
Tyrwhitt was at Christ Church from 
1845 to 1859, being a student and a 
tutor. Dodgson does not mention Tyr- 
whitt in his diaries until 1856, but, of 
course, their paths may have crossed 
before this. References to him over a 
four-year period indicate that the re- 
lationship was one of a colleague and 
friend. When Tyrwhitt takes up the 


position of vicar of St. Mary Magdalen, 
Oxford, a post he held from 1858 to 
1872, there are no more than half a 
dozen mentions of him in Dodgson's 
diaries. In fact, he is mentioned no 
more than twenty times throughout 
Dodgson's life, and some of these are 
indirect references (e.g. meeting him 
in company with a group of other 
tutors). Dodgson attended his funeral 
in 1895. My point was that, in my 
opinion, he was not one of Dodgson's 
closest companions in comparison 
with, say, Bayne, Prout, Kitchin, and 
others. He did not go for long walks 
with Tyrwhitt. He did not use Tyrwhitt 
as a confidant or adviser. Their friend- 
ship was relatively short-lived through 
circumstance, but they remained in 
contact and met each other a few 
times over the next thirty years. 

To state that Tyrwhitt, being a 
named recipient of a copy of Wonder- 
land, is an argument that indicates 
the relationship was "not merely 

transient" is invalid there are many 

instances of a child on a train journey 
becoming a recipient after a single 
meeting lasting a few hours. 

I can add nothing to my point 
about where people might stay in 
Marske. I gave a factual report of 
the buildings in the hamlet. I merely 
pointed out that residence at Marske 
Hall is purely speculation, and to 
say that "the Dodgsons were almost 
certainly the guests" and "there really 
wasn't anywhere other than Marske 
Hall where the Dodgsons could have 
stayed" is misleading without some 
concrete evidence. 

Edward Wakeling 

Clifford, UK 

In working with Matt Demakos's 
article in this issue, I noted with 
interest the following tale from the 
fabulist Phaedrus: 
"The Bees had made their honey- 
combs in a lofty oak, and the lazy 
drones were calming these as their 
own. The dispute was brought into 
court before the wasp as judge; who, 
being perfectly acquainted with 
either tribe, propose the following 
terms for both to meet: 'Your bodily 
shapes,' said he, "are not unlike, and 
your color is about the same; hence 
the case is obviously and or good 
reason moot. But lest my strict sense 
of duty go wrong through insufficient 
knowledge, take these hives and distil 
your respective productions into the 
waxen cells, so that from the flavor 



Sn Jflemoriam 

Derek Hudson 
1911 -October 31, 2003 

We regret to note the passing of Carroll scholar Derek Hudson, author of more than twenty books, editor {The Times, 
Spectator, and Oxford University Press) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. Hudson had been a member and 
keen supporter of the Lewis Carroll Society (UK) from its early days. His excellent biography — Lewis Carroll (London: 
Constable, 1954), revised as Leiuis Carroll, an Illustrated Biography (London: Book Club Associates, 1976; New York: Clarkson 
Potter, 1977) — and his essay decrying Freudian interpretations {Lervis Carroll, Longmans, 1958) have been invaluable to 
researchers and a source of great joy to readers. 

Hudson's papers relating to Carroll are on deposit in the Surrey History Centre in Woking, England. 

Morton Cohen contributes these reminiscences: 

When I undertook to edit Lewis Carroll's letters in the early 1960s, Derek Hudson was one of the first persons I ap- 
proached for insight and help. He was Carroll's most recent biographer and he would certainly have suggestions 
about people I might approach for copies of Carroll's correspondence. We met for the first time at the English-Speak- 
ing Union in Charles Street, London, for lunch. He was a moderately tall man, slender, with white hair and sharp, 
sparkling eyes. We chatted amiably, and indeed he made a good many suggestions about how I might proceed. 
It turned out that, at that time, we were virtual neighbors in South Kensington, and he asked me round to his 
home a number of times. We sat in his study — I recall carved paneled walls — and he showed me all his files 
and papers connected with his Carroll biography. I remember he had one especially useful notebook with 
names of people he had interviewed, and, of course, he allowed me to take it away and have it photocopied. 
Hudson styled himself a professional journalist, but, indeed, he was more than that, having written, in 
true scholarly mode, more than a dozen books, some about some major journalists, but others rang- 
ing from studies of Kensington Palace and Holland House to his autobiography, Writing Between the Lines. 
He had known and interviewed a number of people who in fact knew Lewis Carroll, and his reports of those 
meetings were invaluable to me. In his biography of Carroll, he brings forth material that had never appeared 
in print before. Certainly one of his major contributions was his discovery of "Cakeless," the undergradu- 
ate satire of Christ Church, its members, and especially the Liddell family and Lewis Carroll. When it appeared 
in 1874, it was seen as an outrageous and scandalous piece of writing, and its author was in fact "rusticated." 
In later life, Derek moved to Hindhead in the south. I visited him there at least once. In more recent times, he lived with his 
daughter in Guildford. 


of the honey and the pattern of the 
comb, matters now in question, it 
may be evident who was responsible 
for these combs.' The drones refused, 
but the bees were pleased with the 
proposed test. Then the wasp ren- 
dered judgment as follows: 'It is 
plainly evident who can't have made 
and who did make the combs; where- 
fore, I restore the fruit of their labors 
to the bees.'" ~ translated by Ben 

Edwin Perry (Cambridge, MA: Loeb 
Classical Library, 1965). 

It is likely (though not certain) 
that Dodgson read Phaedrus as part 
of his classical studies. Perhaps reso- 
nances of this judicial insect helped 
create the wasp in what might have 
been a judge's wig? 

Andrew Ogus 

San Francisco 

'Savings pnoo) The WmTing Desk 

OF Alan Tannenbaum 


"^•^■^^s you have already read, the New York City 
^^^^ meeting at the Fales Library was a success. We 
M. ^owe a great deal of thanks to Marvin Taylor, its 

director, for allowing us to meet there, and for the help in 
arranging the hi-tech facilities that we used for the Board 
of Directors meeting and the main program. Little did I 
know thirty years ago, when I worked for NYU in the ad- 
joining building helping to plan the information system 
for the yet-to-be-built Bobst Library, that the Berol Collec- 
tion within the Fales within the Bobst would house such an 
important Carroll collection. 

Despite the state of travel nowadays, it was gratifying 
to have more than seventy people in attendance, many of 
whom traveled from other cities. We had members from 
all corners of the covuitry. We were very pleased to have 
some special guests from far away, including our longtime 
Carrollian friend, scholar, and collector Yoshiyuki Momma 
from Japan, as well as Mrs. Eiko Okvmi, the treasurer of 
the Lewis Carroll Society of Japan, and Dana McCausland, 
president of the Lewis Carroll Society of Canada. Edward 
Wakeling of the Lewis Carroll Society (UK) was one of our 
featured speakers, so we had coverage from a large por- 
tion of the Carrollian world. 

As for ravings: Those of you who could not attend 
missed some outstanding and provocative talks by Edward 
Wakeling and Morton Cohen, and a performance by pro- 
fessional actor (and LCSNA board member) Andrew Sel- 
lon and two of his follow thespians. The auction, with Joel 

Birenbaum at the hammer, was great fun as well as a suc- 
cessful fund-raiser, and a number of original and special 
edition books and other bits of Carrolliana were sold to 
attendees. The extra festivities on the day before, the frab- 
jous lunch and reception on Saturday (thanks, as always, 
to Janet Jurist for local arrangements), and a small gather- 
ing of friends at Alice's Tea Cup for Sunday brunch made 
it well worth the trip. Please consider attending at least 
one meeting each year. The Knight Lettei always has an ex- 
cellent synopsis, but it can't quite match being there. 

We hope to have another superb meeting in the 
spring, when we meet at the Houghton Library at Har- 
vard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The meeting is 
planned for Saturday, May 8. Watch the Society's web site 
( for updates. I am led to believe 
that we may have some special international visitors, and 
there is a good chance that the meeting will include an 
extra day on Friday, so try to reserve both days for being in 
the Boston area. 

I hope everyone had a good holi- 
day season, and on behalf of the 
Society, I wish you a happy and 
healthy 2004. 


Well, I heard she flew down to the 

Mountain City. 
He said, that's not what I heard — I 

hear she went higher. 
She depended on her friends to 

tell her when to stop it 
To make a statement; this is me 

talking to you. 

chorus: Like Alice through the 

looking glass, 
She used to know who she was. 
Call out my name, call out my name, 
But I get no answer, she prays. 

Better run for your life, cried the Mad 

All right, said Alice, I'm going back 
To the other side of the mirror; I'm 

going back. 
Oh no, you cannot tell a gypsy, ooh, 

that she's no longer a member. 
Become a deadly weapon now along 

with everything else 
Oh, call my name. 
Ooh run for your life said the 

Mad Hatter 
All right, said Alice, I'm going back to 

the other side of the mirror 
This is me talking to you well this is 

me talking to ya 
Alice, Alice... 

Stevie Nicks 
The Other Side Of The Mirror (1989) 


Her companions, scattered around 
the room, also accentuated for the 
Frenchman's benefit their lascivious 
attitudes. Sitting, standing, or half- 
reclining, several of them seemed 
to be miming the living reproduc- 
tion of more or less famous works of 
art: Greuze's Broken Pitcher (but in a 
further state of undress), Edouard 
Manneret's Bait,^ Fernand Cormon's 
Chained Captive, Alice Liddell as a 
little beggar girl with her shift in sug- 
gestive tatters photographed by the 
Oxford don Charles Dodgson . . . 

Alain Robbe-Grillet 

Repetition: A Novel (New York: 

Grove Press, 2003; Richard 

Howard, translator) 

' Manneret is a fictional character, the vic- 
tim in Robbe-Grillet's 1965 mystery novel 
La maison de rendez-vous. 



I sold my soul for a one night 

I followed Alice into Wonderland 
I ate the mushroom and I danced 

with the queen 
Yeah, we danced in between all the 

I followed daylight right into the 

Took to the Hatter like a walk in 
the park 
But then I met her, yeah, she felt 

so right 
No child of the night, yeah, was she 

chorus: They called her Sunshine 
The kind that everybody knows 
Yeah yeah, Sunshine 
She's finer than a painted rose 
Yeah yeah. Sunshine, yeah 

I got the karma but it don't 

come free 
I'll chase that rabbit up the old 

oak tree 
The caterpillar's tryin' to cop a plea 
But the smoke ain't got nothin' 

on me 

Just Push Play (2001) 

GET FUZZY Darby Conley 

CM U\/€S IM 

-mi^ ^pARTMeviT 

WHO 19 TH^S 

IS He?'. 




(X ARE we 



Le2eme Colloqiie International Leu^iJ Carroll 

Lawrence Gasquet 

Universite Michel de Montaisrne-Bordeaux III 

On the 17th and 18th of October 2003, the 
Second International Lewis Carroll Conference' 
took place in France under the direction of 
Sophie Marret, Jean-Jacques Lecercle, Michel Morel, 
Isabella Nieres, and Lawrence Gasquet. The symposium 
was held at the University of Rennes in Brittany, and 
invited the participants to ponder over "Lewis Carroll 
8c les mythologies de I'enfance" ("Lewis Carroll and the 
Mythologies of Childhood"). 

The first day of the conference gave the participants 
an opportunity to think about the progression from text 
to reader response, reflected in the following papers: 

Jean-Jacques Lecercle (Universite de Paris X - Nan- 
terre): "Desir d'Alice" 

Sophie Marret (Universite de Rennes II): "Les petites 
filles: de I'inconscient au mythe" 

Michel Morel (Universite de Nancy II): "La double 
contrainte dans Alice ou le mythe en etat de con- 

Isabelle Nieres-Chevrel (Universite de Rennes II): 
"Alice dans la mythologie surrealiste" 

Two workshops were held in the afternoon: the first 
was devoted to Carrollian linguistics and reception aes- 
thetics, and included the following participants: 

Sakari Katajamaki (University of Helsinki): "Lan- 
guage as a Leading Path: Lewis Carroll's Nonsense 
and Linguistic Determination" 
Sebastien Chapleau (University of Cardiff): "Alice, 
Critics and/as Children: A Childist Approach to 
Children's Books" 

Stephanejousni (Universite de Rennes II): "La voix 
de I'enfance: Joyce oix la revolution du Portrait" 
The other workshop recontextualized Carroll's pro- 
ductions within the framework of Victorian children's 
literature or representation: 

Virginie Douglas (Universite de Rouen): "D'Alice a 
Harry: mythe et spatialisation du texte dans la littera- 
ture britannique contemporaine pour la jeunesse" 
Strother Purdy (Marquette University, USA): "Lewis 
Carroll and the Subversion of the Child Myth" 
Jacques Dissard (Universite de Paris X - Nanterre): 
"Alice ou les gargons" 

Lydie Malizia & Frank Thibault (Universite de Paris 
III): "Alice, Peter et Miles: la fin de I'innocence" 
The first day of the conference ended with a screen- 
ing and commentary presented by Chiara Lagani, director 
of the Italian theater troupe Famiy & Alexander \\'b\ch had 

recently presented a play entitled Alice Vietato > 18 Anni 
("Alice: over eighteen years old not admitted"). 

The next morning a workshop was held on illustration 
and photography, with the following program: 

Toshiro Nakajima (Konan University, Japan): "The 
Diptych-like Imagination in Lewis Carroll" 

Mikiko Chimori (Osaka Meijo Women's College, 
Japan): "Modern Japanese Alice Illustrations" 

Rosella Mallardi (University of Bari, Italy): "Lewis 
Carroll's Photographic-Narrative Aesthetics and the 
Myth of the Child" 

John Tufail (University of East London): "The Illumi- 
nated Snark: Symbol and the Language of Illustration 
in The Hunting of the SnarK' 

The other workshop pursued the thread of the pre- 
ceding day, the myths of childhood: 

Luiza Palanciuc (EHESS, Paris): "Possible traversee: 
mythes et stereotypes de I'enfance chez Lewis Carroll" 

Hugues Lebailly (Universite Paris I - Tolbiac): 
"L'amie-enfant carrollienne, mythe et realite" 

Kate Lyon (Wliitireia Polytechnic, New Zealand): 
"Instances of Mythological Symbolism Within the 
Alice Texts" 

Pascale Renaud-Grosbras (Rennes): "Lewis Carroll 
et les psychobiographes: la fondation du mythe ou 
I'enfance reifiee" 

A plenary session was held in the afternoon, dealing 
with music and photography: 

Simon Gallot (Universite Lyon II): "Lewis Carroll 
mis en musique par Gyorgy Ligeti: 'The Lobster Qua- 

Lawrence Gasquet (Universite de Bordeaux III): 
"Lewis Carroll, Writer and Photographer: Clearing 
Up a Few Myths" 

Lindsay Smith (University of Sussex): "Photography, 
Stammering and the Voice of Infancy" 

The papers from this conference will be published 
soon by the University of Rennes II. A volume of the 
First International Conference which was held in Nancy 
in 1999 has recently been published by the University 
of Nancy, with articles in French and English, edited by 
Professor Michel Morel. - 

' The similarly named First and Second International Lewis Carroll 
Conferences, which have been held in Oxford, England (1989) 
and North Carolina (1994), have no formal relation. 

^ Michel Morel, Leims Carroll: Jeux et Enjeux Critiques (Nancy: Presses 
Universitaires de Nancy, 2003). €21 from 



Pictures and Conversations: Lewis Carroll 
in the Comics by Byron Sewell, Mark 
Burstein, and Alan Tannenbaum 
(Austin: Ivory Door, 2003) is a com- 
prehensive, annotated international 
bibliography of comic books that 
contain references to Lewis Carroll 
and his works or characters, "from the 
big names to the unknowns — from 
the far-away to the far-out." The pref- 
ace, "Comic Sensibilities: Alice in 
the Funny Papers" by Mark Burstein, 
provides a survey of the comic me- 
dium throughout history and begins 
the discussion of the appearances 
of Carroll characters therein: The 
first ones arrived in 1901, just three 
years after Dodgson's death and they 
continue to make appearances to this 
day. Most everyone you have heard 
of (Superman, Batman, Casper the 
Friendly Ghost, the Incredible Hulk, 
and so forth) has at one time or an- 
other been visited by, or has visited, 
the /ife characters. The bibliography 
itself is chronological within catego- 
ries, from Horror and Sci-Fi through 
Funny Books, Translations, Erotica, 
and so on. It has two indexes. See or write to Alan 
Tannenbaum, S801 Greystone Drive, 
Austin TX 78731 

oV^ «^c^ X, 


Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (New 
York: Little Simon, 2003). $25. "Paper 
engineer" Robert Sabuda has cre- 
ated a most enchanting pop-up book 
based on the Tenniel illustrations. 
His ingenuity in the constructions is 
breathtaking: a Victorian peep show, 
hidden faces, foil elements, and an as- 
tonishing dimensionality taken to new 
heights for the medium. The volume 
is on the Nno York Times best-seller list 
in the "Children's Picture Books" cat- 
egory and in the "Ten Best Illustrated 
Children's Books for 2003" in the Neio 
York Times Book Review (November 
16, 2003). He is also the subject of a 
biographical article in Chris Hedges' 
"Public Lives" column in the Neiu York 
Times, December 9. Here is an e-inter- 
view with Robert: 

Why did you choose M\ce^ Adventures ? 
I have always loved the story of Alice 
since she is up against such terrible 
odds in a crazy world of mean adults. 
In fact, I never really got over the 
fact of just how mean the adults were 
to her (can you imagine a duchess 
with such a sharp little chin?) And of 
course the use of silly language and 
play on words is wonderful! 

How long did the project take? 
Most pop-up (or "movable" books, 
as they are traditionally called) take 
from six months to a year to develop 
and Alice was no exception. The 
most challenging part is the design 
of all the pop-ups! This can take even 
longer than creating all of the actual 
artwork that will go on the pops 

Were there special challenges ? 
The story of Alice is so beloved I 
wanted to make sure that I stayed 
on a respectful side when creating 
the book. One of my philosophies in 
bringing classic tales to the pop-up 
world is "if it ain't broke, don't fix it!" 
So I always try to be very respectful to 
the original creators yet at the same 
time have the book reflect something 
of me as an artist. 

Are there "hidden" things to look for which 
we might otherwise miss ? 
The flying cards scene (if I remember 
correctly) has exactly two decks of 
cards in it! 

How did you first come across Carroll? Do 
you have an affection for him ? 
I have loved the story of Alice for so 
long I don't even remember when 
I was first introduced to it. I'm sure 
that my mother must have read the 
story to me and it just became part 
of the "library in my head." When I 
grew up I finally had the opportunity 
to learn more about Carroll and his 
love of telling stories. 

Are you planning to do a Looking-Glass 


I haven't thought about a sequel yet, 

but one never knows! 

Does anything else cotne to mind? 
Please just thank everyone in your 
organization for supporting such 
non traditional versions of Alice and 
let them know that if they would like 
to find out more about the book (in- 
cluding pictures of the process for 
making it) to please stop by my web- 


Alice in (Pop-Up) Wonderland by]. 
Otto Seibold with paper engineering 
by James Diaz (New York: Orchard, 
2003) is an abridgment of the text 
featuring stylish, sophisticated, color- 
ful, and wildly stylized digitally-ren- 
dered illustrations by the best-selling 
illustrator of Olive, the Other Reindeer, 
Penguin Dreams; Space Monkey; and 
the Mr. Lunch series. A very witty 
volume, it somehow complements 

One Pill Makes You Smaller by Lisa Dier- 
beck (New York: Farrar, Straus & Gir- 


oux, 2003), reviewed in the Neiu York 
Times on September 7, 2003, is an- 
other unfortunate paHmpsest on the 
tale, this time with AHce as an eleven- 
year-old, oft-molested Manhattanite 
in the 1970s, living in "a haze of non- 
supervision, drugs, rock music, and 
[her sister] Esme's boyfriends." One 
of them is called Rabbit and takes her 
to an anarchic art camp, a substitute 
for Wondeiiand, where she is further 
seduced into sexual abuse. The title 
is a misquote of the misbegotten rock 
song, yet one further remove from au- 
thenticity. The author was interviewed 
on the Leonard Lopate radio show on 
WNYC in New York on October 3. You 
can hear it at 

Rupert Holmes's mystery thriller 
Where the Truth Lies (New York: Ran- 
dom House, 2003) is described in a 
New York Times review 
(August 3, 2003) as a 
"witty analysis oi Alice 
in Wonderland as a neu- 
rotic young woman 
who ingests forbidden 
substances and wanders 
through surreal [1970s] 
landscapes in search of 
dangerous knowledge 
and new sensations." 

Another Alice, Eh ? Alice 's 
Adventures in an Alberta 
Wonderland, Byron 
Sewell's "translation" 
of the Adventures into 
contemporary Canadian, 
illumined with his own 
fine illustrations, was 
published by the L.C.S. 
Canada in December, 

Peter Blake by Natalie 
Rudd in the Tate's 
"Modern Artists" series 
(London: Tate Publish- 
ing, 2003). This color- 
ful and well-designed 
volume explores his life 
and art. Blake (b. 1932) 
has worked in an aston- 
ishing variety of media. 
Perhaps best known for 
his cover for Sgt. Pepper's 
Lonely Hearts Club Band, 
Blake was commissioned 

in the late 1960s to do a suite of eight 
illustrations for Looking-Glass. The 
book project did not go through, so 
they were released as prints. You can 
see all of them (and one he did of 
the Mad Tea Party) , a photo of his 
Alice model, and a two-page interview 
about his Carroll obsession in these 
pages, as well as an in-depth look at 
his remarkably delightful body of 



Mark Burstein 

Alice in Wonderland 

Illustrated by Ralph Steadman 

Published by Firefly Books Ltd. 

US$ 29.95 

ISBN: 1-55297-754-4 

© 2003 Ralph Steadman 

Our friend George Walker, he of the 
magnificent Cheshire Cat Press edi- 
dons of the canon (/CL 55.6-7, 58.18), 
has spent the last year in the (virtual) 
company of Ralph Steadman as Fire- 
fly Books, Ltd. of Toronto has just 
issued a new edition of Wonderland, 
replete with Mr. Steadman's inspired 
drawings, some unique to this version. 
But first, a bit of history of the Stead- 
man illustrations, which, in the pres- 
ent author's opinion, reign supreme 
as the set of illustrations for adults. 
There is a very slight drawback in the 
caricatures and other visual in-jokes 
being recognizable only by dwellers in 
the UK. 

1967: Wonderland puhVishedhyDoh- 
son Books Ltd., London. Also in Ital- 
ian by Milano Libri Edizioni. 

1972: Looking-Glass published by Mac- 
Gibbon 8c Kee, Ltd., London. 

1972: Wonderland 

receives the Francis 

Williams Memorial 

bequest for the best 

illustrated book of the 

previous five years. 

1973: Limited series 
of Wonderland and 
Looking-Glass intaglio 
etchings released in 
editions of 65. Also 
"WTiite Rabbit" and 
"Wool on W^ater" draw- 
ings as offset litho 
poster prints in edi- 
tions of 50. 

1973: New editions 
of Wonderland and 
Looking-Glass were 
published simultane- 
ously in New York by 
Clarkson N. Potter and 
in Don Mills, Ontario, 
Canada by General 
Publishing Company 

1975: The .Sr?flr/f pub- 
lished by Michael 
Dempsey in associa- 
tion with Studio Vista 
Ltd., London, and in 
America (New York: 
Clarkson N. Potter, 
1 976) . Also a set of six 
etchings in an edition 


of 65 in sepia and black was published 
by Bernard Stone. 

1977: Verses of Lewis Carroll Qapanese 
title is "Ruisu Kyaroru Shishu") pub- 
lished in Japanese (Tokyo: Chikuma- 
Shobo). The slipcase has an illustra- 
tion from Looking-Glass, and there is 
an Alice figure in the inside covers. 

1977: A "Wasp in a Wig" illustration 
"after Tenniel," commissioned for the 
(London) Sunday Telegraph Magazine, 
September 4, 1977, appears in color 
on the cover. Two more illustrations 
appear within. Reprinted by Smith- 
sonian Magazine, December 1977, 
Vnj Nederland, October 22, 1977 (in 
Dutch) and (albeit in black and white 
and reversed in early printings) in 
the "First American Trade Edition" of 
the episode (New York: Clarkson N. 

1986: Wonderland, Looking-Glass, Snark, 
and "Wasp" published in a single vol- 
ume The Complete Alice & The Hunting 
of the Snark, simultaneously by Salem 
House, Topsfield, Massachusetts, and 
Jonathan Cape (Random House), 
London. New material included an 
additional introduction and new il- 
lustrations. Published also in French 
(Paris: Editions Aubier Montaine, 
1986) and later in German (Ham- 
burg: Zinnober Vlg., 1992). 

1998: My After-Dinner Speech on the 
Occasion of the Centary Dinner at Christ 
Church, Oxford on the 14th January 
1 998, to Celebrate the Life of Lewis Carroll 
(Luton: White Stone Publishing, The 
Lewis Carroll Society [UK]). Contains 
one drawing from Looking-Glass. The 
talk was retitled "But we'll need some 
jam," and reprinted sans the Stead- 
man illustration — but with three new 
ones by Paul Cox — in The Best After- 
Dinner Stories, selected and introduced 
by Tim Heald (London: The Folio 
Society, 2003). 

2003: Wonderland puhWshed by Fire- 
fly Books, Toronto and New York. 
Redesigned by George Walker, with 
"restored, reformatted, and updated" 
illustrations and, from the original 
Dobson edition, hand-carved wooden 
letters ("Alice" on the cover and chap- 
ter numbers). 


George Walker was interviewed by 
email about this edition. 

Who had the original idea for the Firefly 
edition and xvhy ? 

Firefly has published two other 
books by Steadman, Tales of the Weirrd 
and Sigmund Freud. This was Just 
continuing a relationship that was 
built between the publisher and Mr. 

Hoiu did you get chosen ? 
I'm the in-house designer here at 
Firefly books so it was just another 
book that flew my way. 

How did you work with Mr Steadman? 
I mainly worked with Ralph by email 
and snail mail. 

Were there any added illustrations ? 
That's a tough one to answer because 
the answer is 'Yes and No." Steadman 
added new illustrations for Alice in 
the Jonathan Cape edition in 1986 
and reworked some of them for 
ours. He calls the new images "semi- 
originals." In our edition some of 
the images have been extracted 
from the original illustrations. For 
instance, the picture of the King 
and Queen for the frontispiece did 
not appear in any earlier editions, 
but was an enlargement of a detail 
from pp. 114-115 in ours. Steadman 
reworked a photocopy to create the 
new image. You'll also find that the 
White Rabbit on p. 121 has had the 
poem "They told me you had been 
to her..." added to the paper he is 
holding. The same image is reversed 
on the cover, with the poem written 
backwards (Steadman called this 
"foreshadowing Through the Looking- 
Glass'^). The Dodo on p. 30 is simi- 
larly extracted from pp. 32-33 where 
it is partially obscured by the inner 
gutter margins. So you can see the 
answer is not straightforward. 

Were any illustrations recornbined from 
earlier editions ? 

Yes, we have combined the Jonathan 
Cape and Dobson editions. The Fire- 
fly edition is a combination of the 
two publications with the new images 
from the Cape edition and the semi- 
original images. 

Is Firefly planning to release Looking- 
Glass ? Snark ? 

There are no plans to publish them. 

Do you have any anecdotes from your 
working together? 

Anecdotes? You bet! WTien Anna 
[Steadman] returned the signed cop- 
ies of the books she wrote on the cus- 
toms papers "does not contain porno- 
graphic material." Of course that told 
the ever-paranoid customs people 
to open the box and check out each 
book for naughty pictures. 

Ralph and 1 did have a great phone 
conversation when the book was 
done. He was having a glass of wine 
and a smoke in his backyard when the 
first copy of the new book arrived. He 
called me to say how much he liked 
what 1 had done. I was flattered, and 
then we moved on to talking about 
art, his new illustrated novel DooDaaa, 
The Balletic Art of Gavin Twinge [Lon- 
don: Bloomsbury, 2002], how curi- 
ous the warning pictures on smokes 
are, and did we have similar warning 
messages on cigarettes in Canada. I 
said yes and sent him a bunch with 
the most gruesome ones I could 
find. I think he plans to do a series of 

/ hate to be clicked, but luhat is he like? 
Steadman is an English gentleman, 
scholar, and eccentric, an exceptional 
artist who is gracious and thoughtful. 
Although I was asked several times to 
interpret his emails to the publisher, 
I think that was because his replies 
were more creative than explanatory. 
It's the same with most confusing cor- 
respondence — like when the Hatter 
says, 'You might just as well say that 'I 
see what 1 eat' is the same thing as 'I 
eat what 1 see'!" — Steadman saw what 
he said and said what he saw, yet they 
may be construed differently. By the 
way, he identifies himself completely 
with Carroll, almost to the point of 

I studied printmaking at art col- 
lege, so Ralph and I had an immedi- 
ate shared love of fine printmaking. 
1 sent him some of my wood engrav- 
ings and he sent me some very cool 
ephemera he had. It was truly a fun 

Mr. Steadman has kindly given us per- 
mission to print the copyright images 
on the front cover of this issue and on 
the previous page. Please visit him at 



Larry Hall 

A lice In Wo n derla n d 

DVD and VHS, available in U.S. and 
UK formats 

Produced and Directed 
by Jonathan Miller 

BBC Productions 

First transmitted on December 28, 

Starring Anne Marie Mallik,John 
Gielgud, Peter Cook, Alan 
Bennett, Leo McKern, Peter 
Sellers and Michael Redgrave 

Extras: director's commentary, pro- 
duction stills, Alice in Wonderland 
(1903), and director's biography 

Back in the era of peace and love, 
when the Beatles ruled the airwaves, 
and Carnaby Street was the center of 
fashion, a youngish Jonathan Miller 
decided he'd rather like to make a 
somewhat surreal version of Lewis 
Carroll's already somewhat surreal 
story, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 
By the mid-1960s. Miller was well 
established as a writer, performer, and 
stage director, who was also a pro- 
ducer and presenter of arts programs 
for the BBC, and had made two mod- 
erately successful art films. 

Approaching the then head of 
the BBC, Sir Hugh Weldon, Miller 
sought backing for the project. He 
explained his ideas and mentioned 
that he thought the production would 
cost around £28,000 ($78,400). "No," 
said Sir Hugh, "It will cost £32,000 
($89,600) and I suggest you go ahead 
and make it." And so began the film- 
ing of perhaps the most revered of 
A/«V^ adaptations, a version that broke 
virtually all the conventions and ex- 
pectations of how Lewis Carroll's story 
should be made. 

Out went the cute animal masks, 
the cheery songs, and even the pretty 
little seven-year-old girl in the blue 
dress. Miller went right back to basics 
and came up with a dark vision of a 
serious Alice, a Victorian child living 
in academic surroundings struggling 
to understand the adult world and 
relating her dreams to the people and 
situations around her. In many ways, 
this film is about Alice Liddell and is 

arguably one of only two television 
productions that have attempted to 
see her as Carroll saw her Alice is pre- 
sented as an older child, perhaps ten 
to twelve, as she was in real life when 
Wonderland was written. 

Anne Marie Mallik was chosen for 
the role, not for her stage experience, 
which was zero, or even her acting 
ability, but because she seemed to 
epitomize the serious, dark-haired 
Alice Liddell. Miller had advertised 
the role but rejected most of the ap- 
plicants because they were virtually all 
conventional "cute little girl" types. 
Then almost out of the blue came a 
photograph of Anne Marie Mallik, 
the daughter of a Surrey barrister and 
with no previous professional acting 
experience. Miller took one look at 
her unsmiling, haunted, and almost 
otherworldly expression and hired 
her almost immediately. 

Miller's cast is impressive. He de- 
cided to try for as many theatrical 
stars as he could, but even he was 
surprised at the strata of people who 
were willing to take him on. Among 
others, there were John Gielgud, 
Ralph Richardson, Michael Redgrave, 
Peter Sellers, Leo McKern, and Peter 
Cook — legends each and every one. 
Without the restrictions of animal 
masks, these fine actors could bring a 
degree of characterization that would 
otherwise be lost. Hence, the caterpil- 
lar becomes an absent-minded don 
from the university, momentarily sur- 
prised to find an inquisitive young girl 
in his rooms babbling on about size 
changes and forgetting things. His 
academic training suggests some reci- 
tation might put her mind in order, 
and of course he has some stern 
but wise words on the advisability of 
maintaining an equitable temper The 
Gryphon and the Mock Turtle are two 
retired gentlemen whiling away their 
golden years, sitting on the beach in 
conversation, reminiscing and indulg- 
ing a passion for painting. Miller 
rarely altered the CaroUian dialogue, 
and the written word was never more 
natural nor apt than here. Some of 
the actors improvised arovmd certain 
stretches of the dialogue but by and 
large it remained as Carroll wrote it. 

The whole film is presented as one 
long summer day, where everything is 
overly bright, the hours seem to drag 
on forever, and there's a general feel- 
ing of listlessness. In a scene with the 
Hatter, the conversation just peters 
out, the arguments become pointless 
and everyone just sits there too hot 
and bothered to move. All the outside 
scenes are augmented by an insec- 
toid soundtrack, heightened by the 
use of music composed and played 
by the world-famous sitar player Ravi 
Shankan Miller particularly wanted 
the background music to suggest a 
hot dusty day, with insects constantly 
droning in the background. It has to 
be said that Shankar's Indian music 
also carries a suggestion of hallucina- 
tion, given its association with the 
Beatles and their psychedelic period. 

As much as anything, the film 
explores the nature of dreaming, in 
which the dreamer seems to move 
almost instantly from one situation 
to another without needing exposi- 
tion or explanation. To enhance the 
dreamlike quality. Miller has Alice de- 
liver much of her dialogue as an over- 
dub, as if she were thinking out loud. 
This is suggested in the original story, 
where Alice internalizes her exchange 
with the Duchess at the croquet 
match, but is much expanded in the 
film. As in a dream, she often seems 
to have a conversation inside her 
head while the rest of her perceived 
world reacts to what she is thinking. 

There's also a whole gamut of ser- 
vant-heavy culture existing on a level 
of its own, possessing its own sense of 
logic — all of us (whether maid, foot- 
man, or gardener) have our jobs to 
do; even if they make no sense, they 
are expected of us. As John Bird's 
Frog-Footman says, "Tell you what 
I'll do for yoti. Nothing. Of course, 
I can't do it straight away, I'm a bit 
busy at the moment." All said with a 
straight face and believing every word. 
Jonathan Miller saw in Wonderland the 
confusion of class differentiation — 
adults must be respected, servants are 
adults, so why aren't they respected in 
the same way as uncles? 

Apart from the trial scene and a 
couple of special inserts, there are 
generally no constructed sets used 


in the film. It makes excellent use 
of real locations, which suggests a 
quintessentially English middle-class 
environment, with bleached cottage 
exteriors, fading paint work and 
rambling roses everywhere. There 
are Victorian settings in abundance 
and in great detail, with bric-a-brac 
cluttered rooms, ornate black-leaded 
fire grates, heavy curtains, aspidistras 
growing in glass conservatories, and 
utilitarian kitchens with stone sinks. 
Miller actually placed advertisements 
asking for people to suggest real-life 
locations that he could use. 

Among those chosen was the ru- 
ined Chapel at Castle Donnington, 
where they filmed the caucus race, 
the derelict Royal Victoria Hospital at 
Netley near Southampton — through 
which Alice's initial chase after the 
WTiite Rabbit takes place — and Sun- 
ningdale House and grounds in Hast- 
ings. The pictures of Alice walking 
in the beech woods on a steep-sided 
valley, soon after the start of the film, 
were filmed there, as were the later 
scenes as she wakes up. The house 
itself has now been demolished, but 
the cottage within the grounds, which 
doubled for the \ATiite Rabbit's cot- 
tage, is still standing. 

Miller and his cameraman, Dick 
Bush, attempted to emulate the pho- 
tographic style of the Victorian era, 
and particularly the look of a Dodg- 
son photograph. Hence, all of the 
film is shot with a short-focus 9mm 
lens, which creates a dreamlike wide 
angle of vision in which the whole 
scene is lit in a very diffuse way and 
objects appear to foreshorten as they 
approach the camera. They also ap- 
pear to diminish quickly and change 
proportions as they move away, and 
this is largely how Miller achieved 
Alice's different sizes. By placing fur- 
niture close to the camera and then 
having Alice move towards or away 
from it, the effect of her changing 
size is suggested without using an 
obvious superimposition or traveling 
matte technique. The exception to 
this is in the White Rabbit's bedroom 
where Alice diminishes in size quite 
rapidly. This was achieved by the con- 
struction of a trick Ames room, which 
from a fixed viewpoint looks 

perfectly square but is actually built 
with sloping trapezoid walls and floor, 
taking only a small movement inside 
the room to give the impression of a 
drastic change in size. 

Similarly, Miller employs very few 
photographic tricks. An obvious one 
occurs during the trial scene when 
Alice stands next to a mirror with her 
reflection moving independently. 
This may suggest that she is in the 
process of waking up and therefore 
losing her grip on her dream. It may 
also link to the overall theme of the 
loss of childhood, where Alice realizes 
that she is about to step over one of 
life's thresholds and become a young 
adult. In fact. Miller uses a quotation 
from Wordsworth's "Intimations of 
Immortality" at the end of the film 
as Alice intones, "The things which I 
have seen I now can see no more."' 

The film was shot on 35mm film 
stock and in black and white. There 
was some talk about re-shooting the 
film in color for the American mar- 
ket, but it was impossible to reassem- 
ble the cast, particularly Peter Sellers. 
In any case, color television sets were 
rare in the UK in 1966 and color film 
stock was a needless expense, particu- 
larly as most programs were shown 
a maximum of three times and then 
often dumped. The BBC is famous 
for having wiped countless numbers 
of unique and irreplaceable video- 
taped performances on the groimds 
that they didn't have enough storage 
space and they could save money by 
reusing the tape. Rather like Leon- 
ardo Da Vinci painting over the Mona 
Lisa rather than buying a new piece 
of wood. Fortunately, Miller's Alice 
was shot on film and even the BBC 
couldn't erase that. 

The film negative was lodged with 
the British Film Institute (BFI), and, 
apart from a rare repeat of the film 
on the BBC, there it sat for almost 
forty years. The value of these unique 
film and television performances is 
recognized much more these days 
and, at last, Miller's Alice has been 
released on VHS tape and on DVD 
by the BFI in both European and 
American formats. The film transfer is 
excellent, both picture and sound 

are crystal clear without noticeable 

The DVD has, as we've come to 
expect in these digital days, a certain 
number of "extras," and these include 
a commentary by Miller which is en- 
tertaining and informative, if a little 
rambling. There is also a director's 
biography and what is described as a 
"Stills Gallery." Well, three photos in 
fact. The DVD also includes the 1903 
version of Alice in Wonderland by Cecil 
Hepworth (discussed in "Hep, Hep, 
Hooray," below). 

The BFI may have been a bit tardy 
in releasing this after a nearly forty- 
year wait, but a "Well Done!" to them 

' Wordsworth wrote the Hne in 1802 and 
published the whole of the poem, "Ode: 
Intimations of hnmortalit)' from Recol- 
lections of Early Childhood," in 1807 in 
Poems in Two Volumes. Incidentally, the first 
stanza, which ends with the quoted line, 
begins: "There was a time when meadow, 
grove, and stream, / The earth, and every 
common sight, / To me did seem / Appar- 
elled in celestial light, / The glory and the 
freshness of a dream." 

HEP, HEP, hooray! 

David Schaefey 

Cecil Hepworth in his 1951 autobi- 
ography describes the making of the 
very first motion picture version of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The 
year was 1903.' 

...and then we came to a 
more ambitious effort in Alice 
in Wonderland. This was the 
greatest adventure, and we did 
the whole story in 800 feet [of 
film] — the longest ever at that 
time. Every situation was dealt 
with, with all the accuracy at 
our command and with rever- 
ent fidelity to Tenniel's famous 
drawings. I had been married 
about a year and my wife, bro- 
ken-in to film work, played the 
part of the White Rabbit. Alice 
was played by Mabel Clark, 
the little girl from the cutting 
room, growing exasperatingly 
larger and smaller as she does 
in the book. The beautiful gar- 
den was the garden of Mount 


Felix, at Walton; the Duchess, 
the kitchen, the mad tea party, 
the Cheshire cat, the royal pro- 
cession — all were there. The 
painting of the whole pack of 
cards human size was quite an 
undertaking and the madly 
comic trial scene at the end 
made a suitable and hilarious 
finale. ~ Cecil Hepworth, Came 
the Dawn 

Cecil Hepworth was introduced to 
motion pictures when he saw Edison 
"peep show" films being projected 
through a translucent screen. "This 
was a modern miracle I shall never 
forget," he wrote. It was only seven 
years later that his movie titled Alice in 
Wonderland W2is filmed. 

The Hepworth company was con- 
cerned that the paying public might 
be unwilling to sit through a ten-min- 
ute viewing. Therefore, in addition to 
the ten-minute version, they offered 
four three-minute excerpts from the 
film: Alice's Adventures in the Beautiful 
Garden, The Duchess and her Pig-Baby, 
The Mad Tea Party, and The Procession 
of the Pack of Cards. 

Wlien my wife Maxine and I inher- 
ited my mother's Lewis Carroll book 
collection in 1967 we decided that we 
would branch out and collect 16mm 
versions of motion pictures relating 
to Lewis Carroll. The prize, of course, 
was the very first of these 
films, Cecil Hepworth's 
1903 Alice. In 1975 
we obtained a copy 
of the Hepworth film 
from the British Film 
Institute, after receiv- 
ing blessings from the 
Museum of Modern Art 
(the BFI demanded it) 
and the payment of a 
small royalty to Eliza- 
beth Hepworth, Cecil 
Hepworth's daughter. 

We had been warned 
that the original was 
in poor shape, and 
our copy certainly con- 
firmed this. However, 
it was in good enough 
condition to see that it 
was a charming film. 
The ability to use so- 

A detail of the opening title 

phisticated photographic techniques 
back in 1903 was evident in the scenes 
of Alice changing size, and the baby 
turning into a pig. 

Because of its poor condition, I 
made a copy of the film that cut out 
many damaged frames, converted it 
so that it could be projected at sound 
speeds, and added a sound track that 
had a description of each scene as 
annotated in the 1903 advertisements 
for the film. Many of you have seen 
this version. At a meeting of the Lewis 
Carroll Society (UK) we projected the 
film with Elizabeth Hepworth pres- 

ent. This led to a friendship with Ms. 
Hepworth, who subsequently gave us 
a great deal of information about her 
father and about the film. 

The 1903 description of the film 
states "toned and stained in various 
beautiful colors." WTiat colors? Ms. 
Hepworth supplied us with the an- 
swers: Calm scenes, as when Alice falls 
asleep, are tinted blue; scenes of ac- 
tion such as in the Duchess's kitchen 
are tinted red. Other colors used 
include yellow, brown, and — for the 
Cheshire cat — violet. 

Our Society discussed producing 
a DVD of the film (complete with the 
tinting) to celebrate its hundredth 
birthday. The BFI, however, beat us 
to the punch by attaching the film 
to their DVD release of the Jonathan 
Miller Alice in Wonderland.'- An inter- 
esting commentary by Simon Brown 
of the BFI accompanies the Hepworth 
film. It is not tinted and remains in 
very poor shape, but the motion pic- 
ture is now available to a much wider 
audience than ever before. 

There have been many techno- 
logical miracles in the century that 
produced Alice, but still we remain 
impressed with Hepworth and his 
skillful use of the "modern miracle" 
of a century ago. 

' Cecil Hepworth, Came the Dawn: Memories of 
a Film Pioneer (London: Phoenix House, 
1951), 29 and 63. 

- The BFI production re- 
fers to the Him as "directed 
by Percy Snow," leaving off 
the Hepworth name (see 
AX 71.38). The American 
release (by Public Media 
hic.) hasjust taken place. 

The LCSNA xuould like to 
acknowledge David Schae- 
fer and his keeping the 
flame alive for so many 
years and providing so 
many of us with our first 
look at this marvel. 

The Procession of the Park of Cards 




Lexuis Carroll and His Illustrators: 

Collaborations and Correspondence, 


Morton N. Cohen 

Edward Wakeling 

To acknowledge this new scholarly publica- 
tion, a collection of letters from Carroll to 
his illustrators, the editors present every 
word he scripted concerning one chosen 
illustration along with the Harry Furniss 
illustration itself. The passage relevant 
to that illustration has been deliberately 
excluded to demonstrate that even with a 
complete ignorance of the subject, Carroll's 
letters are still an enjoyable read — individ- 
ually entertaining luith their minutiae and 
together, enriching in their fullness. 

The Numbers, enclosed in oblongs, 
refer to the pages of mounted text 
already in your hands... 

51 "Are not those orchises under the 

I have tried a sketch, which I enclose: 
but really my sketches come out so 
wretchedly bad, that I must try to con- 
vey my meaning by descriptions. This 
picture should contain Arthur and 
Sylvie. I have drawn Arthur looking 
sideways, which is a mistake: he ought 
to be looking at the spectator, because 
the picture represents what the "I" of 
the book saw, and of course he saw 
Arthur looking at him, while address- 
ing him. He should seem to be point- 
ing, only, with his stick, and should be 
quite unconscious that he is really 

being pulled along by Sylvie. I think 
she should pull rather harder than 
I have made her do. And her figure 
should be semi-transparent, showing 
dimly whatever is behind her (a gate 
or rail would do very well), but not 
quite transparent (see my remarks on 
the drawing of "Nero holding thief), 
as, in that case, she would seem to be 
behind the rail, instead oi\n front oi 
it." (June 8, 1893) 

The paging is at a standstill just now, 
for want of knowing whether or not 
there is to be a picture of the invis- 
ible (i.e. transparent) Sylvie leading 
Arthur by pulling his walking-stick. I 
have suggested such a picture to you 
(I think in my letter dated June 8) but 
you have not yet told me whether you 
think it worth drawing. If you do, and 
can tell me the proportions of length 
and width of the picture, I can leave 
a proper space for it, and can then 
go on with the paging. I am very anx- 
ious to publish, if it be possible, next 
Christmas. (September 8, 1893) 

(93) S. pulling A. along: This looks all 
right, except that Arthur oiight to be 
looking in the direction in which he 
is being pulled. If you look at the text, 
you will see that he thinks he is point- 
ing, at the orchises, with his stick.... 

I had better tell you the order in 
which the as-yet-unfinished pictures 
will be wanted. It is: 

93. Orchises 

71. Willie's Wife... 
(September 30, 1893) 

(93) Orchises: This drawing is excel- 
lent, in every point but one. And this I 
must ask you to alter, by giving her a 
little more skirt floating out in front of 
her. She does look so very nearly naked, 
with the dress fitting in to the body and 
front of the thigh. You must remember 
the book has to be seen, not only by 
children, but by their Mothers: and 
some Mothers are awfully particular! I 
hope it won't give you much trouble: it 
seems to me that, by erasing about 1/4 
inch strip of shadow, the skirt could eas- 
ily be widened enough to satisfy that ex- 
orbitant "Mrs. Gnmdy." The sketch of 
this figure, without the drapery, must be 
quite lovely. I suppose you made one, 
from the life? You were good enough 
to say that I might have your "studies" 
for these pictures. I'm quite looking 
forwards to possessing this. By the way, 
how old is your model? And may I have 
her name and address? My friend. Miss 
E. G. Thomson, an artist great in "fair- 
ies," would be glad to know of her, I'm 
sure. (October 12, 1893) 

"Are not those orchises?" Harry Furniss 


Carrollian Notes 


"'Please, Ma'am, is this New Zealand 
or Australia?'" Now we can answer 
her: both! Kate Lyon has founded the 
Lewis Carroll Society of New Zealand 
which, for now, consists of a website 
( and an online discus- 
sion forum. We, the Lewis Carroll So- 
ciety of North America, welcome the 
LCSNZ to the sisterhood of Carroll 
Societies already thriving in Australia, 
Canada, Japan, and the UK. 


A report on A. S. W. Rosenbach's life 
in the article "Our Kind of Town" 
{KI. 71.9) said that the original 
manuscript of A//V^'5 Adventures under 
Ground W2LS "donated... to the British 
Library, where it remains on display 
at the British Museum to this day." 
Better if it had said "donated... to the 
Library of the British Museum. Since 
January 1999, the 'British Library,' 
formed in 1973, has exhibited the ms. 
at the John Ritblat (a.k.a. 'Treasures') 
Gallery in their London St Pancras 

The article "Crimson Tidings" (AT. 
71.36-38) contained a lengthy quota- 
tion from Michel Faber. It was not 
clear that the final paragraph was the 
work of the author. Matt Demakos, 
not Mr. Faber. 

In "5if, sic, sic" [AX 71.38] it was er- 
roneously stated that the da Vinci 
exhibition reviewed by Time critic 
Robert Hughes was at NY-MoMA. It 
was actually at New York's Metropoli- 
tan Musevim of Art. 

Readers who had difficulty in seeing 
the hidden faces in Carroll's illustra- 
tion to Alice's Adventures under Ground 
{KI^ 71.43) refered to by Ruth Ber- 
man (XL 71.8) are directed to the 

publication of her talk, "Alice as Fairy- 
tale and Non-Fairy-tale" in The Carrol- 
lian 1 1 , Spring 2003, where they are 
more clearly delineated. 


The venerable Chicago Manual of Style 
Fifteenth Edition, in discussing quota- 
tion marks (section 11.33), uses the 

"Don't be absurd!" said Henry. 
"To say that 'I mean what I 
say' is the same as 'I say what 
I mean' is to be as confused 
as Alice at the Mad Hatter's 
tea party. You remember what 
the Hatter said to her: 'Not 
the same thing a bit! WTiy you 
might just as well say that "I see 
what I eat" is the same thing as 
"I eat what I see"!'" 


Sic, sic, sic 

From Julia Margaret Cameron: A Critical 
Biography (Getty Trust, 2003) by Colin 
Ford: "In December 1857, not long 
before Lewis Carroll took up photog- 
raphy, he wrote a parody of Longfel- 
low's narrative poem Hiaxoatha, that 
included a surprisingly full descrip- 
tion of the wet collodion process..." 

"I think I may be in Brigadoon. Or I 
could be the WTiite Knight napping. 
If I am napping now, what will hap- 
pen when I lie down and dream that I 
am napping? Perhaps I will turn into 
Jesse Colin Young... The fog thickens. 
Dare I risk another nap?" asks colum- 
nist Jon Carroll in the San Francisco 
Chronicle, August 5, 2003. 
[The Wute Knight?] 

From The Gentle Art of Cookery by Mrs. 
C. F. Leyel and Miss Olga Hartley 

(1925, reprinted by Chatto & Windus, 
1983): "French cooks treat vegetables 
as respectfully as the dormouse did its 
watch, and use the best butter, which 
makes a dish of green vegetables 
scientifically a perfect food, fit to be 
served as it is in France as a course by 
[The dormouse?] 

From The Music of the Primes: Searching 
to Solve the Greatest Mystery in Mathemat- 
icshy Marcus du Sautoy (HarperCol- 
lins, 2003): "The Beaver in The Hunt- 
ing of the Snark arrives with 'forty-two 
boxes, all carefully packed / With his 
name painted clearly on each'." 
[ The Beaver?] 

From "End Papers" by Catherine 
Porter in Antiquarian Book Reviexu, No- 
vember 2003: "In 2001 Sotheby's won 
the collection of Alice Liddell and 
we were introduced to the world of 
the WTiite Rabbit: Lewis Carroll and 
his devotees. They were an amazing 
group of people, dedicated, enthusi- 
astic, often bordering on the eccen- 
tric, who knew far more about Carroll 
than anyone else." 

[And exactly ivhom else were Carroll devo- 
tees supposed to knoxv about?] 



Andrew Sellon 

"Dreaming in Pictures: The 
Photography of Lewis Carroll" 
The International Center of 
Photography, New York 
June to September, 2003 
Organized by Douglas R. Nickel 

Polixeni Papapetrou 
PhotoGraphic Gallery, New York 
June 14, 2003 through July 13, 2003 
Curator: Alison Holland 


New York-based fans ofDodgson's 
photography had a rare treat this 
summer: not one, but two exhibitions 
celebrating his art and artistry. One 
was "Dreaming in Pictures" at the 
International Center of Photography, 
the exhibition of selected photo- 
graphs that was shown last year in San 
Francisco (XL 70.2-4). 
The other was "Dream- 
child," a homage to 
Dodgson's images 
and aesthetic by the 
contemporary photog- 
rapher Polixeni Papa- 
petrou, which showed 
all too briefly at the 
PhotoGraphic Gallery 
in SoHo. For a few 
weeks in July, the tim- 
ing of the exhibitions 
converged and it was 
possible to see both 
in a single day. This, 
then, was the mission 
that Patt Griffin, Janet 
Jurist, and I took upon 
ourselves one warm, 
sunny summer Friday. 
We decided to view 
the contemporary 
exhibition first. After 
strolling through the 
Enchanted Forest (a 
trendy little SoHo 
gift shop on the same 
block as the gallery), 
we remembered our 
names and purpose, 
and located the PhotoGraphic Gal- 
ler)' at 71 Mercer Street. I had already 
viewed most of the exhibition on the 
gallery's web site, but still was not 
fully prepared for the impact of the 
enormous, roughly 43-inch-square art 
prints (type "C" photographs) that 
greeted us as we entered. Curator 
Alison Holland welcomed us warmly 
and spent a great deal of time speak- 
ing with us about the artist and the 
giant Dodgson-inspired photographs. 
Ms. Holland, like the artist, hails from 
Australia.' Although it was not explic- 
itly discussed during our conversa- 
tion, I confess that the image of Ms. 
Papapetrou, a former lawyer turned 
photographer, creating these Carrol- 
lian works somewhere in Alice's "An- 

tipathies," only added to the Wonder- 
land atmosphere of the exhibition. 
It turns out that these ambitious 
and beautiful photographs are very 
much a family affair: the model is 
the artist's little daughter Olympia, 
the backdrops for some of the paint- 
ings (based on painted backgrounds 

"Olympia as Irene MacDonald, " after "It won 't come smooth " by 

C. L. Dodgson (1863). ©2003 Polixeni Papapetrou and used by permission. 

from some ofDodgson's nude pho- 
tographs) are rendered by the artist's 
husband, and many of the costumes 
are sewn by the artist's mother. For 
those who have not yet seen any of 
Papapetrou 's "Dreamchild" photo- 
graphs, they are mainly restagings 
of some ofDodgson's better known 
photographic images; a handful are 
variations or simply inspired by the 
originals. One of these last images, 
that of a little girl asleep by a brook 
with her hand lying gently on an 
open book, was actually suggested by 
the six-year-old model herself as her 
own tribute to Dodgson's stories. 
The first question that a Dodgson pur- 
ist might ask, to quote a certain cat- 
erpillar, is "WTiy?" Here is the artist's 
reply from her press packet: 

"I restage [Dodgson's] fancy dress 
photographs as they embody and 
symbolize the themes that I am fas- 
cinated with, namely, the represen- 
tation of childhood and selfhood 
and the boundary crossing that 
occurs in photography through 
the performative acts which take 
place before the cam- 
era. It is my interest in 
the portrayal of child- 
hood emerging from 
my experience as a 
mother/artist and my 
interest in the histori- 
cal and contemporary 
representations of the 
child in art that has 
partly led me to make 
this work." 

The press packet goes 
on to state: 

"In restaging 
Dodgson's costume 
dramas and the four 
surviving nude pho- 
tographs, Papapetrou 
is trying to present a 
contemporary vision 
of childhood that por- 
trays Olympia 's psycho- 
logical and physical 
individuality, but also 
allows her to remain 
distinctively child-like. 
Papapetrou's images 
don't look exactly like 
Dodgson's — the mise- 
en-scene has a different 
balance of theatrical abstraction 
and intimacy and Olympia's con- 
sciousness of boundary-crossing 
is sharper and her gaze — in full 
knowledge of the Victorian exem- 
plars that she rehearses — is more 
intense, more knowing, more 
dreamy, more in touch with the 
reasons for performing in the pho- 
tographs and with the will of the 

With all due respect to those 
involved, other than the fact that 
Dodgson was an intimate adult friend 
rather than an actual parent, I would 
not grant that Olympia's gaze is any 
more intense, knowing, dreamy, or 


"in touch with the reasons for per- 
forming" than the gaze of his best 
models, notably Xie Kitchin and Alice 
Liddell herself. There's no question 
that compelling intimacy in a model's 
gaze is usually dependent on success- 
fully establishing a "naked trust," if 
you will, between the model and the 
artist — but if anything, the press state- 
ment about Papapetrou's work implic- 
itly points up just how 
remarkable Dodg- 
son's own achieve- 
ment was in securing 
that fragile trust from 
so many child models 
without actually being 
the parent. 

Regardless, Ms. 
Papapetrou should 
be roundly praised 
for her achievement 
in these vivid and 
compelling images. 
Working in color, 
and on a scale that 
Dodgson could never 
have achieved in his 
lifetime, the artist 
succeeds in bring- 
ing something of 
Dodgson 's evocative 
waifs and their pecu- 
liar class- and culture- 
crossing, make-believe 
magic into the present 
day. These new works 
are lovely to behold, haunting in a 
Carrollian way, and merit extended 
viewing. Wliile each of us had a dif- 
ferent favorite by the end of our visit, 
we each wished we could afford to 
take home at least one. My particular 
favorite was the artist's version of "It 
Won't Come Smooth"; it captures 
the feel of the Dodgson original with 
great success, but also adds the plea- 
sures of the unique little chair and rug 
Papapetrou chose for the scene — ob- 
jects found around the artist's house 
and combined in a serendipitously 
perfect composition. The near-life 
size of these images allows you to feel 
as if you might be able to converse 
with these pensive children and half 
believe it real. The color saturation 
is magnificent, and each pose is ar- 
ranged — lighting, backdrop, 

costume, props and all — with a me- 
ticulousness that Dodgson would have 

These wonderful images have 
been produced in extremely limited 
quantity — only six of each have been 
printed for U.S. release — and at a 
starting price of $2,500, they are not 
for the financially faint of heart. They 
are, however, superb. - 

"Flying cards, " after the vriginal dlustrdtion by John Tenniel. 
Papapetrou and used by permission. 

After our adventures in SoHo-land, 
we headed to midtown for the exhibi- 
tion at The International Center for 
Photography (ICP). Janet had already 
seen the exhibition in San Francisco 
so she did not remain with us for the 
whole visit, but this was a first viewing 
for Patt and me and we luxuriated 
in it. Since the exhibition's beauti- 
ful hardcover companion volume' is 
already widely available and probably 
sitting on your bookshelf (if not, it 
should be), I will limit myself to shar- 
ing some specific subtle highlights 
that appealed to me on a leisurely 
stroll through the gallery: the beauti- 
fully chosen angle of Charles Terry's 
figure in his seated pose, echoed by 
the line of the fabric piping on his 
clothing; the palpable longing under 

Annie Coates' blank countenance; 
the wonderfully androgynous pose of 
James "Jemmy" Sant, and the elegant 
composition of the positive and nega- 
tive space around him; the way Xie 
Kitchin and her brother George al- 
most become a single being thanks to 
the artful use of the fabrics in which 
they are draped. The list could go on 
and on. 

It was also interest- 
ing for me, both as 
a Carrollian and as a 
photographer, to see 
single images that 
bespoke other voices: 
the image of Florence 
Maude Terry from 
July 17, 1865 looks 
almost like a shot by 
Julia Margaret Cam- 
eron (of all people); 
the well-known pose 
of Ellen Terry at 
the window seems 
strongly influenced by 
the work of Dodgson 's 
lesser-known contem- 
porary Lady Hawar- 
den (whose work he 
admired^ and who 
had a strong fondness 
for photographing 
reflections); and the 
1872 image of Julia 
Arnold seated bare- 
legged on a unmade 
bed is so erotically charged as to be al- 
most shockingly contemporary. Wliile 
it was disappointing that a number of 
the prints on display are actually re- 
strikes rather than originals, the exhi- 
bition is admirable for the refreshing 
balance of familiar and unfamiliar 
images selected. 

But in a way, the best part of the 
"Dreaming in Pictures" exhibition 
may actually be the virtual photo 
albimis through which you can 
browse at your leisure. These are 
page-by-page recreations of three 
of his own photo albums, rendered 
exactly as Dodgson himself displayed 
them. Here, the familiar little girls are 
seen blended in amongst a healthy 
assortment of fellow scholars, family, 
friends, celebrities, and the occasional 
skeleton or landscape. Intellectually I 

©2003 I'olixeni 


knew this to be the case, but a picture 
seen in context is worth more than 
any amount of words that any scholar 
or curator might supply. If only these 
virtual albums could be made avail- 
able on CD-ROM! There should be 
prizes for Douglas R. Nickel and all 
involved with this exhibition. If you 
have not already seen it, it is still mak- 
ing its way around the country and 
should not be missed.'' Good as the 
exhibition catalog is, the photographs 
will speak to you even more vividly 
and deeply in person. 

Editor's comment 

Much has been written about the 

"Dreaming in Pictures" exhibition 

{KL 70.2-4), but a bit of additional 

information about "Dreamchild" is in 


At a far remove from literal appro- 
priations analagous to those of Pierre 
Menard, ' Papapetrou's exquisitely 
theatrical reenactments are creative 
reimaginings of the tableaux created 
by Mr. Dodgson, enriched with and 
informed by our modern worldview. 

Born in Melbourne in 1960 of 
Greek immigrant parents, Papapetrou 
received a BA/LLB from the Univer- 
sity of Melbourne in 1984, received 
an MA in Media Arts from RMIT 
University and is "currently two-thirds 
of the way through a PhD at Monash 
University that looks at Carroll's pho- 
tography." She has been widely exhib- 
ited in solo and group shows and is 
particularly known for her studies of 
Elvis fans ("Elvis Immortal"), fashion 
and power ("Authority"), drag queens 
("Searching for Marilyn"), bodybuild- 
ers ("Fallible Archetypes"), and the 
many aspects of childhood and iden- 
tity ("Phantomwise"). 

One of Australia's premier pho- 
tographers, Papapetrou has been 
the recipient of many awards in her 
field. Having once been a corporate 
lawyer, she now devotes all her time 
to her art, her marriage (to artist and 
critic Robert Nelson, the creator of 
the background paintings used in her 
photographs), and her two children. 

She writes "I am an avid Carroll 
enthusiast and you may be interested 
to know that I am currently photo- 
graphically re-staging the Alice in Won- 
derland and Through the Looking-Glass 
stories based on the illustrations of Sir 

John Tenniel. Again, my six-year-old 
daughter Olympia is the model for 
the work." 

Papapetrou's U.S. representative 
is Alison Holland, 71 Mercer Street, 
New York, NY 10013, alison@photo-; (212) 925-4508. 
Her Australian representative is the 
Kalli Rolfe Contemporary Art Gal- 
lery, 909 Drummond Street North 
Carlton, 3054 Melbourne, Australia.; 
+61 3 9387 6939, +61 3 9380 8869 fax; 

' Her lecture on the topic is available 
on the gallery's web site at w'^^'w.alison 

^ To see a selection of the images yourself, 
visit the exhibition at the galleiy's web 
site at 
papapetrou.htm. "It's like seeing the 
offspring of old friends." 

^ Douglas R. Nickel, Dreaming in Pictures: The 
Photography ofLexuis Carroll (San Francisco: 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

4 Charles Dodgson, June 23-25, 1864, Ed- 
ward Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The 
Private Journals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson 
(Clifford, England: The Lewis Carroll 
Society, 2001), 4:314-18. 

^ The exhibition is currently showing at The 
Art Institute of Chicago and will end its 
four-city run there in January 2004. 

^ Jorge Luis Borges, "Pierre Menard, autor 
del Quijote" in Eljardin de senderos que se 
bijurcan (Buenos Aires: Sur, 1941) 



Francine F. Abeles 

For two days, June 29 and 30, 2003, 
mathematicians and computer sci- 
entists gathered at The Institute for 
Defense Analyses' Center for Com- 
munications Research in Princeton, 
New Jersey, to belatedly honor David 
P. Robbins on the occasion of his 
sixtieth birthday (the previous August 
12).' In the early 1980s, Robbins and 
his associate, Howard Rumsey, took 
the notion of permutation matrices 
and generalized it to alternating sign 
matrices which led the way to the 
proof of the Alternating Sign Matrix 
(ASM) conjecture, an extraordinarily 
difficult problem that took fifteen 
years to solve. Robbins and Rumsey's 
study of Dodgson's condensation 
method for computing determinants 
led them to invent ASMs.-^ 

Of the six hour-long invited pa- 
pers, including one by Robbins, two 

were given by the mathematicians 
who finally proved the ASM con- 
jecture: Doron Zeilberger ("David 
Robbins's Art of Guessing") and Greg 
Kuperberg ("Symmetry Classes of 
Alternating Sign Matrices"). Robbins' 
paper, "A Conjecture Concerning Ap- 
proximate Dodgson Condensation," 
dealt with the division-by-zero prob- 
lem in Dodgson's algorithm. 

The other three papers were 
presented by mathematicians whose 
work is directly connected to the ASM 
conjecture. George Andrews, who 
worked on descending plane parti- 
tions (DPPs), which Robbins, Rumsey, 
and William Mills tied to the ASM 
problem, discussed a related conjec- 
ture. Further work by Robbins on 
DPPs in the form of totally symmetric 
self-complementary plane partitions 
(TSSCPPs) deepened the insights that 
ultimately would lead to the proof of 
the ASM conjecture. Bill Doran, who 
provided the first contribution to the 
TSSCPP problem later solved by An- 
drews, discussed these themes. 

The third paper, given by Jim 
Propp, described his own current 
work and that of others who are using 
Dodgson's condensation method in 
new ways, particularly asynchronous 
Dodgson condensation and the 
octahedron recurrence, and a new 
analogue of Dodgson condensation 
(the cube recurrence) the true sig- 
nificance of which, Propp adds, is still 
tinclear. In recent publications, by 
Sergei Fomin and Andrei Zelevinsky 
(2002), and David Speyer (2003), 
asynchronous Dodgson condensation 
is used in connection with Laurent 

In the long breaks between talks, 
several participants expressed keen 
interest in knowing more about Dodg- 
son on a personal level, especially 
about his other mathematical work 
and his photography. It was an excit- 
ing experience for me to be in this 
setting, knowing that Dodgson began 
it all in 1866. 

' Sad to report, Dr. Robbins died on Sep- 
tember 4, shortly after this celebration. 

'^ See Francine F. Abeles, "Charles L. 
Dodgson and the Solution of the Al- 
ternating Sign Matrix Conjecture," KL 
62.7-9 for a more complete story. 
See Propp's web site (abel.math.har\ard. 
edu/~propp) for more information. 


The wonderfully rich mono- 
chrome illustrations to 
Wonderland by lassen Ghi- 
uselev, originally published 
in German (Aufbau-Verlag, 
2000), are now available in an 
English-language edition (Ve- 
rona, NJ: Simply Read, 2003). 
Ghiuselev's stroke of genius 
was to create a single drawing 
in which the entire story can 
be absorbed in a glance, and 
from which the individual 
pictures are culled. ISBN 
1894965000. $30. 

Through the Looking-Glass (Ryazan, 
Russia: Uzorochje, 2003), with il- 
lustrations by Tatiana lanovskaia, 
a talented Russian emigre now 
living in Canada, can be ordered 
directly from the artist. Only 200 
were printed. US $20 for the 
book; greeting cards are also avail- 
able. Tatiana lanovskaia, 25 Black 
Hawkway, North York, Ontario, 
Canada M2R 3L5; 416.650-1871; 

The Darkroom: Photograph'^ and the 
Theatre of Desire by Anne Marsh 
(Melbourne: Macmillan, 2003). The 
section "Photography and Desire: 
Nineteenth Century Phantasms and 
Fantastic Surrealism" contains an 
essay "Lewis Carroll: Making Desire 
and (the) Performing Girl" and 
also discusses Polixeni Papapetrou 
(see pp. 43-46) in a later essay "The 
Child and the Archive: History Re- 

Readers in Wonderland: The Liberating 
Worlds of Fantasy Fiction From Dorothy 
to Harry Potter hy Deborah O'Keefe 
(New York &: London: Continuum, 
2003) considers fantasy fiction pub- 
lished since 1950, along with a few 
notable older titles. Lewis Carroll 
and the A//V^ books are mentioned 

Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Construction of 
Children's Literature in America by Bev- 
erly Lyon Clark (Baltimore: Johns 
Hopkins University Press, 2003) con- 
tains a chapter entitled "The Case 
of British Fantasy Imports: Alice and 
Han-y in America." 

drawings. See philosophy. wad 

The Frumious Bandersnatch by 
Ed McBain (New York: Simon 
& Schuster, 2004) is a police 
thriller that involves a young 
pop singer who puts "Jabber- 
wocky" to music and comes to 
a bad end. 


Mirror Mirror: A History of the Human 
Love Affair with Reflection (New York: 
Basic Books, 2003) by Mark Pender- 
grast makes, as one might imagine, 
much use of Looking-Glass. 

In a new children's picture book, 
Miss Smith 's Incredible Storybook, writ- 
ten and illustrated by Michael Gar- 
land (New York: Dutton, 2003), Won- 
derland and Oz characters appear. 
"The illustrations are particularly 
nice." ~ Angelica Carpenter. 

The Effect of Living Backwards by Heidi 
Julavits (New York: Putnam, 2003) 
does have a Carrollian title and 
epigraph; the principal character is 
named Alice; her sister, Edith; and the 
terrorist, Bruno, but that's about it. 

Prunella 's Adventures in Wonderland? 
Customized Classics will print a pa- 
perback for you of Wonderland with 
any girl's name globally substituted 
for Alice, including on the cover. 
They also offer Romeo and Juliet (giv- 
ing Brad and Helen as an example), 
Moby Dick ("you" can be Ahab, Ish- 
mael, or even the whale) and similar 
desecrations of Conan Doyle and 
Kipling. $20. www.customizedclassics. 

Alice in Wonderland and the World 
Trade Center Disaster: Why the Official 
Story of 9-11 is a Monumental Lie 
(Ryde, Isle of Wight, U.K.: Bridge of 
Love Publications, 2002). Conspiracy 
nut David Icke thinks the whole 
thing was a setup. 

The 2004 Philosophy & Religion Cata- 
log from Thomson/Wadsworth is 
illimiinated with the Rackham Alice 


"Alice in Wonderland: A 
Fashion Fairy Tale," a 25-page 
spread of haute couture de- 
signed by the fashion world's elite, 
photographed by Annie Leibovitz 
and starring the leggy beauty Natalia 
Vodianova, in Vogue, December 2003. 

"Philip Conklin Blackburn: An 
Underappreciated Lewis Carroll 
Scholar" by Charlie Lovett and "See- 
ing Photographs in Comfort: The 
Social Uses of Lewis Carroll's Photo- 
graph Albums" by Diane Waggoner 
in the Princeton University Library 
Chronicle 62 No. 3, Spring 2001 (but 
just now published) in an issue dedi- 
cated to the memory of Alexander 

Elain Ostiy's article, "Magical 
Growth and Moral Lessons; or. How 
the Conduct Book Informed Victo- 
rian and Edwardian Children's Fan- 
tasy," in The Lion and the Unicorn 27, 
No. 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 27-56, contains 
a five-page section on Wonderland. 

The "Techsploitation" column by 
Annalee Newitz in the San Francisco 
Bay Guardian 37, No. 40, July 2-14, 
2003, entitled "Sex in the Library," 
contained some baseless slander 
about Mr. Dodgson's proclivities, 
in relation to the writer's youthful 
discovery of the book of Dodgson's 
nude photographs of children. San- 
dor Burstein, past president of the 
LCSNA, attempted to set her straight 
in a letter published in the next issue 
(No. 41, July 9-15). She, in turn, at- 
tempted to rebut him by asking if he 
would dare send a copy through the 
U.S. mails; apparently she was not 
aware of the respected place of the 
book in question — Morton Cohen's 
Lewis Carrol rs Photographs of Nude 
Children (Philadelphia: Rosenbach, 


1978; retitled Lewis Carroll, Photogra- 
pher of Children: Four Nude Studies and 
published commercially by Clarkson 
N. Potter in 1979) — in the academic, 
photographic studies, and Carrol- 
lian universes. There the matter was 

Somerset Studio 7, Issue 4, July/ Aug 
2003. A magazine devoted to "paper 
arts with rubber stamping and letter- 
ing-art techniques" featured an Alice- 
themed issue. 

"The History of Lewis Carroll's 'The 
Game of Logic' " by Clare Imholtz in 
The Papers of the Bibliographical Society 
o/AmmVfl 97:2, June 2003. 

"The Hunting of the Snark" by Laura 
Miller in "The Last Word" column, 
New York Times Book Review, Octo- 
ber 5, 2003, discussed the website 
which allows postings about "snarky" 
(unduly nasty) book reviews. 

Children 's Literature 31 (the annual of 
the Modern Language Association 
Division on Children's Literature 
and the Children's Literature As- 
sociation), 2003, contains Jennifer 
Geer's "All Sorts of Pitfalls and Sur- 
prises: Competing Views of Idealized 
Girlhood in Lewis Carroll's Alice 

Tlie Sea Fairy: In Celebration of Vintage 
Illustrated Children 's Books, Issue 28, 
Nov/Dec 2003 contains "A Trip to Ox- 
ford" by the editor, Liz Holderman. 

"Tools of the Trickster's Trade" by 
Dustin Eaton in Parabola: Myth, Tradi- 
tion, and tlie Search for Meaning, Winter 
2003, discusses Carroll's use of trick- 
ster figures. 



The International Children's Digi- 
tal Library at \ is 
a compilation of digitized picture 
books from the world's various cul- 
tures (imaged page by page, not as 
text). It has Wonderland'''r&X.o\A in 
words of one syllable" (actually, many 
words are simply hyphenated) by J. 
C. Gorham (A.L. Burt, 1905) and 
also a volume illustrated by Gordon 
Robinson (S. Gabriel, 1916). 


The included starter texts of Scan- 
Soft's Dragon Naturally Speaking 7 
(speech-to-text software) contain 

Fans of the Lewis Carroll handwrit- 
ing and dingbat fonts should know 
that they're back in cyberspace after 
a long absence, at 

"Alice in WWWland", a new e-zine at 

"The Hunting of the Snipe," a 
parody using characters from MTV's 
"Daria" cartoon, www.outpost- 

"Alice in Blunderland," an illustrated 

parody of scientific blimders, from 

the New Internationalist, 

No. 182, April 1988, at www.newint. 


"Alice Doesn't Vote Here Anymore" 
from Mother Jones, March/ April 1998. 

A picture of "Alice's Caterpillar" 
from the Wildwood Farm Nursery 
and Sculpture Garden in Kenwood, 
Calif., at 

A good portal to the lives of Miss Lid- 
dell and Mr Dodgson in Oxford can 
be found at 

Take a virtual trip through the Alice 
in Wonderland ride at Disneyland 
(Windows MediaPlayer; audio only) : 

A recently founded association of 
new Lewis Carroll studies known as 
"Contrariwise," which consists of the 
"revisionist" critics Pascale Renaud- 
Grosbras, Hugues Lebailly, Karoline 
Leach, John Tufail, Mike Leach, and 
Jenny Woolf, is constructing a schol- 
arly web site devoted to a re-exami- 
nation of the life and works of C. L. 
Dodgson. Their URL is www.looking and it includes 
sections on the growth of the image, 
on reprints of some of the original 
articles that set in motion this re-ex- 
ploration, and on new writings on this 
topic. We will be looking at this site in 
greater depth in the next issue. 


The fall meeting of the L.C.S. Can- 
ada, September 13, 2003 in Toronto 
featured a talk by Fernando Soto 
on "Blake, Carroll, MacDonald, and 
Metamorphoses: From Worm to 
ChrysAlice to Sylvie" and a screening 
of Andy Malcolm and George Pas- 
tic's film, now titled "Sincerely Yours, 
Lewis Carroll" (AX 70.3). 

An illustrated lecture, "The Art and 
Flair of Mary Blair," by John Cane- 
maker, the author of the book of 
the same name (New York: Disney/ 
Hyperion, 2003) was part of New 
York MoMA's film program (Decem- 
ber 5 and 6). Mary Blair (1911-1978) 
was not an animator, but a concept 
artist who "conceptualized costumes, 
characters, look, color, and interest- 
ing ways to get into and out of nar- 
rative. ... Her own drawing style, the 
opposite of Disney's, was flat, anti-re- 
alist, faux naif." Although Disney did 
not adopt her overall design for his 
film oi Alice in Wonderland, he used 
several of her conceptions for key 


Mary Kline-Misol's A/ic^ paintings 
{KL 66.13 and front cover) were on 
exhibit in the "Five Women Explore 
the Figure" show at the Shelley Hol- 
zemer Gallery in Minneapolis in Au- 
gust, and others are on permanent 
rotational display at the ArtHouse in 
Des Moines. "Kline-Misol discovers 
Alice in Wonderland imagery in her 
musings on daily life that incorpo- 
rate the patterns and textures of the 
nineteenth-century symbolists and 
the twentieth-century Nabis Bonnard 
and Vuillard. Her imagery draws the 
viewer into a fantasy world at the 
edge of dream." ~ Wesley Pulkka, 
visual arts critic for the Albuquerque 

The City of San Francisco (Hon. Wil- 
lie Brown, proprietor) proclaimed 
October 24th "Grace Slick Day" in 
conjunction with the Hotel Monaco's 
unveiling of two suites: one, in the 
architectural sense, is a guestroom 
that has been transformed into an 
"interactive music shrine" to her 

days with thejeffersons (Starship 
and Airplane), with rates starting at 
$239; and two, in the artistic sense, a 
two-day showing of her "Wonderland 
Suite" often acrylic (ad^-based!) 
paintings of the White Rabbit and 
other characters, www.monaco- 

"Alice in Underland" at the Libreria 
Macondo in Caracas, Venezuela, 
Oct.-Dec. 2003, "an interdisciplin- 
ary exhibit, featuring photos from 
Rigoberto Rodriguez and texts 
from the local literary group Texto 
Sentido, is part of the event 'Mes 
de la Fotografia Caracas.' The ex- 
hibit offers an adult's point of view 
of Lewis Carroll's texts, and pro- 
poses an exquisite game of philo- 
sophical eroticism." See www.enter- and 

The spectacular interactive exhibit 
from the Children's Discovery Mu- 
seum of San Jose (currently at the 
Minnesota Children's Museum in 
St. Paul from January through Sep- 
tember, 2004) is booked through 
2007. However, your local museum 
can rent it after that. By the way, 
you can also rent an 18' illumi- 
nated White Rabbit inflatable at 
the same time. Or just visit them 
interactively at 
viewPage.asp?mlid= 153. 

"Leonarda da Vinci: The Divine and 
the Grotesque," drawings from the 
Royal Collection at Windsor Castle, 
on display from May 9 to November 
9 in London at the Queen's Gallery 
included the red-chalk drawing la- 
beled "The bust of a grotesque old 
woman (c. 1510-20?)," attributed to 
Leonardo's pupil Francesco Melzi, as 
a copy of a lost original by Leonardo. 
The information plate beside the 
drawing states that Quentin Massys 
painted several portraits copying this 
drawing, including the well-known 
one at the National Gallery (Lon- 
don) said to have inspired Tenniel's 
Ugly Duchess. See Rancher's The 
Tenniel Illustrations to the '"Alice" Books 
(Columbus: Ohio State University 
Press, 1985), Chapter Four, for the 
whole story. 


The Stark Ravens Historical Players, 
a "consortium of talented perform- 
ers who produce hilarious and high- 
quality musical historical theater 
specializing in abbreviated classics 
that are sure to please" won awards 
at the San Francisco Fringe Festival 
and the Dickens Fair in 2002 with 
their Alice in Wonderland. The show 
is temporarily retired, but look for a 
revival. A tuneful CD is available at 

Jabberwocky, a combined version of 
Wonderland and Looking-Glass by the 
We Players in Stanford, CA, May 
2003, was an outdoor play in which 
the audience walked from scene to 

The Trials of Alice in Wonderland, a 
musical by the "TADA!" children's 
theater troupe (all performers are 
between 8 and 18), CAP21 Theater, 
New York City, July and August 2003. 

In the "Blueprint" emerging direc- 
tors' summer one-act play series, 
Eric Powers weighs in on the dark 
side with Alice: Wliat Is the Fun?, a 
"deconstruction and updating staged 
with an eclectic mishmash of music, 
dance, costumes, and props and fea- 
turing a rotation of actors portraying 
Alice throughout the evening." At 
ihc ()nt()l()gi{ al-l iv.stcri<- TlieaKr in 
New York City, August 2003. A review 
is online at 

Alice in Wonderland, adapted by 
Brainerd Duffield, at the Napa Valley 
(CA) College Theatre, November 

Alice in Wonderland, written by Joe 
McDonough and David Kisor, in 
revival at The Ensemble Theatre of 
Cincinnati, December 3-28. 


A live auction at PBA Galleries (Sale 
267: July 10, 2003, San Francisco) 
had a lot of Oz and a number of 
Carroll titles. Description and prices 
realized are at 

Bloomsbury Book Auctions (Sale 
464: July 10, 2003, London) had an 
1866 Wonderland "in the original 
decorated red cloth, rebacked," esti- 
mated at £700-1000, which sold for 
£3,565 ($5,935). www.bloomsbury- 

Swann Auction galleries (Sale 
1981: October 21, 2003, New York) 
had an auction of nineteenth- and 
twentieth-centuiy photography. 
Dodgson's famed 1858 photo- 
graph of Edith, Lorina, and Alice 
Liddell on a daybed went for 
$7,000 (estimate was $10-15,000). 

Illustration House (Autumn Premier 
Auction: November 15, 2003, New 
York) had an Arthur Rackham draw- 
ing of the Ace of Clubs executioner. 
Estimated at $7-9,000; it sold for 

Sotheby's (Sale L03409: December 
11, 2003, London) had several in- 
scribed editions, and a set of three 
letters "apparently unpublished" 
addressed to the Hardings, in which 
Dodgson seeks the acquaintance of 
a young girl he met on the seaside. 
In the third of them, he admits to 
being Lewis Carroll. Estimated at 
£6,000-8000, it did not sell. They 
also auctioned a folio (#12 of 50) of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with 
42 original copper plate engravings 
by Didier Mutel (Paris: Didier Mutel, 
2002): The illustrations "appear as 
ghosts of the drawings of John Tenn- 
iel, figures liberated from the image 
of a sweet and pretty little Alice... A 
combination of Japanese Seki Shu 
Shi paper and Arches Vellum allows 
interaction between the traditional 
and the contemporary through 
translucent paper. Each page is 
printed in a specific color and each 
copy of the book is therefore com- 
posed of 550 etched prints superim- 
posed and ordered in a sequence." 
Esdmated at £1,500-2,000, it sold for 
£2,280 ($3,979). 



Buena Vista Home Entertainment 
has announced a new two-disc Dis- 
ney Alice In Wonderland: Masterpiece 
Edition DVD to be released on Janu- 
ary 27(Dodgson's 172"'' birthday!) 
2004 with a retail price of $29.99. 
The disks will be remastered 1.33: 
1 full screen transfers with Dolby 
Digital 5.1 surround tracks, all-new 
introductions, the "One Hour in 
Wonderland" (Disney's very first ap- 
pearance on television, broadcast on 
Christmas Day, 1952) and "The Fred 
Waring Show" specials, "An Alice 
Comedy: Alice's Wonderland" and 
"Operation Wonderland" featurettes, 
abandoned concepts, deleted story- 
boards, song demos, an art gallery, 
"Virtual Wonderland Party" activities, 
two sing-alongs, the "Adventures 
in Wonderland" interactive game, 
a bonus "Through the Mirror" ani- 
mated short, and theatrical trailers. 
It is nearly identical to the Laserdisc 
release, although lacking some Kath- 
erine Beaumont featurettes. 

The Simpsons episode 313 "Moe Baby 
Blues," originally aired May 18, 2003, 
had bartender Moe Szyslak babysit- 
ting Lisa. He looks at the book she is 
reading. Moe: "Alice in Wonderland? 
Must be a takeoff from that Alice in 
Underpants movie I saw." 

At the end of the Alias episode "Re- 
union," originally aired October 
12, 2003, "Syd" (Jennifer Garner) 
returns home after many an adven- 
ture. Her new romantic interest, 
CIA agent Eric Weiss, has bought 
her a present: Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland, to replace the one ("a 
favorite") she lost when her apart- 
ment burned down. "It's the third 
edition," he says, "I couldn't afford 
the first." 

On the Jeopardy game show (a "Kids' 
edition") on September 26, 2003, 
the category was "Classic Literature" 
and the "answer" was "another 


'throu(;h' ONE." None of the chil- 
dren (Matt, Becca and Josh) rang 
in. Host Alex Trebek said "Alice 
Through the Looking-Glass," which is 
not only incorrect (the answer 

"in the form of a question" should 
have been simply "What is 'look- 
ing-glass'?") but he even managed 
to mangle the title of the book! On 
a later, adult Jeopardy, October 17, 
2003, one of the "answers" was "in 


this CREATURE, 'my son'." Katie 
guessed "Jabberwocky." Amazingly, 
despite hearing Katie's answer and 
Trebek's reaction, so did Jack! It cost 

On December 14, HGTV presented 
an hour-long special about Christmas 
at the White House. This year's deco- 
rations featured children's books. 
Characters from Alice are featured in 
the State Dining Room: the tea party 
scene, the Queen of Hearts, and the 
Tweedles. Also, the pastry chef made 
marzipan figures of the Hatter and 
White Rabbit, perhaps for the Blue 

The Absolut Vodka ad "Absolut 
Wonderland" unfortunately is a take 
on "Winter Wonderland," not ours, 
though the possibility was intriguing. 
What would that look like? "Drink 
me?" See 

A short, colorful television commer- 
cial for a St. Ives skin care product 
uses a Wonderland motif. 

Black Sabbath's Ozzy Osbourne's 
little chippy-ofif-the-old-block, Kelly, 
was supposed to make her movie 
debut in a low-budget "contem- 
porary reworking" of Wonderland 
called "Malice in Sunderland," to 
be directed by Simon Fellows and 
scheduled for release in 2004. Mark 
Byrne of What's The Story (Ireland) 
and Christian Beutel of MagicWorx 
(Germany) are co-producing; Bjorg 
Veland's BV International Pictures 
(Norway) will distribute. Perhaps 
the end of civilization; perhaps not. 
After its announcement in July, little 
has been heard of it and Mr. Veland 
recently emailed "the film has not 


If you've been looking for Vince Col- 
lins' "hysterically obscene" 1982 eel 
animation Malice in Wonderland, it has 
just come to our attention that you 
can buy it on a compilation video or 

DVD called "General Chaos: Uncen- 
sored Animation" (1998). 

In April, the BBC's "Big Read" asked 
its audience to nominate their favor- 
ite books. Three quarters of a million 
votes were recorded. Topping the list 
was, unsurprisingly. The Lord of the 
Rings; Wonderland came in at number 


Need a thirty-foot inflatable White 
Rabbit, Caterpillar, or set of mush- 
rooms? Look no further than 

Barnes 8c Noble (in stores, not via 
their web site) has a nice set of 
leather bookends, named "Antique 
Books," consisting of six books, in- 
cluding Wonderland, arranged so that 
two of the books are actually boxes 
with hinged lids. "I think they are very 
well done and I have gotten myself a 
pair." ~ Alan Tannenbaum 

A C. L. Dodgson ALS dated August 9, 
1892 and addressed to Florence (most 
likely Florence Walters or Florence 
Wilkinson) is $4,750 from Lion Heart 
Autographs, 470 Park Avenue South, 
Penthouse, New York, NY 10016; 
212.779-7050; -7066 fax; www.lion 

Electronic Courseware Systems' "Ad- 
ventures in Musicland" is a collection 
of music games specially created for 
children and based on Wonderland 
characters. The CD-ROM (PC and 
Mac) is $50 and can be ordered 

A six-cassette "Collector Box Set" of 
Timeless Treasures, consisting of the 
unabridged Wonderland, Looking-Glass, 
Snark, and Phantasmagoria read by 
Ralph Cosham, from ESI, PO Box 
13789, Arlington TX 76094; 888.578- 
5798. $35. 

"Kelly" and "Tommy" as "Alice and 
the Mad Hatter" in the Barbie-dolls 
Collector Edition, www.barbiecollect 
1001845; 800.491-7514. 


New in the Disney Winter 2003 cata- 
log "Art & Collectibles" section: an 
Alice and the Caterpillar "Illuminated 
Figurine" lamp ($168); a White 
Rabbit Big Figurine with a "work- 
ing pocket watch clock" ($128) [I 
count three oxymora or paradoxes 
in that description! — Ed.]; a Marie 
Osmond Queen of Hearts Toddler 
doll in porcelain ($175); and three 
new Harmony Kingdom boxes — a 
Queen of Hearts that opens to re- 
veal a removable hedgehog ($94), a 
White Rabbit ($30), and a Cheshire 
Cat ($54) which opens to reveal the 
words "Twas brillig" etched inside.; 800.237-575 1 . 

Karen Mortillaro's first four char- 
acters in the limited edition (300) 
bronze sculptures Wonderland 
series and some new anamorphic 
sculptural illusions can be seen at 
7400 Ethel Avenue, North Hol- 
lywood, CA 91605; 818.503-9913; 

Alexander Rosenfeld's "Alice in 
Wonderland," a pen and ink mural, 
twelve feet long on vellum paper, c. 
1935, for sale by the Triggison Gal- 

Peter Weevers' vignettes from Wonder- 
land (New York: Philomel Books, 1989) 
can be seen at 
martgallery.html. A price list can 
be found at collectalice.home.att. 
net/weevers.html. Contact him at 

Complete set ($225) of seven 
miniature reproductions of an- 
tique Alice character dolls at 

"Alice in Vivaldi's Four Seasons: The 
Music Game" CD-ROM ($20) from "Cutting- 
edge, interactive musical entertain- 
ment, games, and puzzles" for ages six 
and up. 

A fairly pricey Alice doll from R. 
John Wright ( 
alice.html), the premiere piece in 
the collection, stands approximately 
17" tall and is exquisitely detailed. It 
retails for approximately $1475; the 
WTiite Rabbit ($675) will be available 
in March, 2004. 

Contrariwise, a comic book by Austra- 
lian illustrator Paul Rasche containing 
stories such as "Spuriouser and Spu- 
riouser" and "666 Impossible Things 
Before Breakfast," is an edgy, often 
disturbing and possibly offensive look 
into the mind of the cartoonist. What 
is never in doubt is his talent and 
affection for Carroll. Order ( US$10, 
including postage) directly from him 
at; www.odd-; 205 Smith St., Thornbury, 
Vic 3071, Australia. 

Batman Detective Comics #787 has a Jab- 
berwock cover with the title "Through 
the Looking Glass" and a major Mad 
Hatter story called "Mimsy were the 
Borogoves," jam-packed with Carroll 

Robert Sabuda offers plush dolls 
inspired by his pop-up Wonderland 
(p. 36). See 

Emily the Strange's 2004 calendar 
contains the illustration "We're all 
strange here," which you can see in 
KI. 70.26. 

Alice in Wonderland Art Tatoos designed 
by Marty Noble, after the Tenniel 
originals, from Dover. $1.50. 


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